Khafos-English Dictionary

Introduction   a   e   f   g   h   i   j   k   l   m   n   o   p   r   s   t   u   v   w   y   z


This is a dictionary of Khafos, a constructed language.

Which words are listed and which are not?

In Khafos, the major part of the lexicon consists of roots that are not specified as nouns, adjectives, or verbs, but can be used as any of the three as needed. Since this dictionary is intended for English speakers, different Khafos part-of-speech realizations have been included or omitted here mainly on the basis of how basic, common, and/or lexically distinct their English translations are.

For example, gahta is represented here as a noun meaning ‘lemon,’ though it could also have been presented as a verb meaning ‘be a lemon’ or as an adjective meaning ‘which is a lemon.’ But since the first translation is in English the most basic, and the other two are wholly predictable, I’ve only recorded the first. Where the same English word can be used for multiple parts of speech, they are indicated together, as for kigne, marked a., n. and translated by the single word ‘favorite’. On the other hand, for a word such as ora, the nomimal translation ‘thief’ and the verbal translation ‘steal’ are both distinct words in English, so I have listed them both.

Any verb that takes a complement (e.g., direct object, indirect object, etc.) has been listed, so that its complement type(s) may be specified. This is necessary because verbal complements are not always predictable. If a verbal form is not shown, then, it does not mean that it does not exist; only that its meaning is predictable and it does not take any complement.


The dictionary is organized partly alphabetically and partly etymologically. Khafos headwords are arranged in alphabetical order. Words that are derived regularly from the same morpheme (even if the meanings have diverged) are grouped with the same headword, separated by bullets (•).

A number of idiomatic phrases and collocations are listed. For consistency, combinations of verb and object (be it direct, indirect, or postpositional) are always listed with the verb; those of nouns and postpositions with the noun. In these entries, a tilde (~) stands for the head word.

Grammatical specifications

Parts of speech are indicated in italics for each Khafos entry. The following abbreviations are used:

a adjective
c conjunction
cl clitic
i interjection
n noun
part particle
post postposition
v verb

Verbs are further specified for what complement(s) they take (if any). The abbreviations listed below are used to indicate complement type (or lack thereof), and are placed in each verbal entry following the part of speech marker (v-). When a verb takes multiple complements simultaneously, they are separated by a comma. Several conjunctions must be followed by a clause with a subjunctive verb; these are marked as well, in the same way.

0 no object
cv subordinate clause with conjunctive verb
do direct object
eo echo object
io indirect object
po postpositional object (the specific postposition or type of postposition used is indicated in parentheses after)
sv subordinative clause with subjunctive verb

Some verbs have distinct meanings in voices other than the active. This is indicated following the part of speech and complement indications, with one of the following abbreviations:

cir circumstantial
psv passive

Finally, some verbs and nouns have distinct meanings or translations in particular tenses, and these are shown with one of the following abbreviations (conjunctions and interjections featuring tense marking are also indicated this way; although the tense marking is no longer inflectional, the word as a whole can be said to be zero-derived from the corresponding noun):

fut future
pres present
pst past

Often a word, or a specific sense of a word, is used only in a certain context (or register). This is indicated an entry in parentheses, directly following the part of speech label. The following registers are noted: archaic, literary, flowery, formal, euphemistic, colloquial, slang. If a word (or sense of a word) may be used in more than one of these contexts, the appropriate labels are separated by a semicolon; if it is used only when multiple contexts coincide, they are separated by a comma. For example, vava ‘tree’ (formal; literary) is used both in formal speech, and in any kind of writing. geshesie ‘neck’ (literary, flowery) is used only when writing in a poetic or flowery style.

Other clarifications

There is sometimes a mismatch between the part of speech of a Khafos entry and that of its English translation. This is intentional; it is due to the fact that the same ideas are sometimes expressed with different types of words in the two languages. In particular, some Khafos verbs that take sentential complements, and some postpositional phrases, are best translated by an English adverb, which class Khafos completely lacks. For example, the second sense of the verb emny (which takes a complement clause with a subjunctive verb) is translated here by the adverb ‘well,’ as that would be the normal way to say the same thing in English.

Extra clarification regarding meaning or usage is often given in parentheses at the end of a definition. Sometimes there are two words for the same concept, one (with front vowels e, i) used when the speaker has a positive attitude towards it and another (with back vowels a, o, u) when there is a negative attitude. The labels "positive" and "negative" are used where appropriate to indicate this distinction. For some entries, S (subject), DO (direct object), or IO (indirect object) is used to indicate the type of noun that is used in a certain position, or to clarify which nouns go into which positions. I use S here to indicate both the subject of a verb, and a noun modified by an adjective.

In entries where the verb is specified to be in the passive or circumstantial voice, the definition describes the action/state of the noun that is the subject in that voice, not in the underlying active structure. For example, the verb nohpa, when used in the circumstantial voice, has the meaning ‘be jealous.’ The one who is jealous is the subject of the clause with the circumstantial verb, even though in the underlying active structure, it is an indirect object.

Example sentences are sometimes given, following a definition.


Etymologies are given in square brackets. If a source word is given with no language specified, it is from an older form of Khafos. For other languages, the following abbreviations are used:

G Grittishc
H Hoxan
M Mapheth
P Pasgemanh
V Vouroudra

Khafos is descended from Vouroudra, so words that trace back to that language were inherited naturally; those from the other languages are loanwords.

The following additional abbreviations are used in the etymologies:

bf back formation from
conf confusion of
inf influenced by
inv inversion of (the vowels were switched either from front to back, or back to front, to derive a word with the opposite meaning)
lb learned borrowing from
red reduplication of
trunc truncation of
var variant form of


a1 n. flint [V. a1]

a2 a., n. male • azwo a. masculine, manly [V. a2]

afotra n. outrigger (to stabilize boat)

aga n. melody [V. ağa]

agazo 1. n. yawn; 2. n. draught, slug, gulp, mouthful • agazoto 1. v-0. yawn; 2. v-sv. act slowly, lazily; 3. v-0. ignore someone

agu n. canoe

ajjo1 1. a. crooked, slanted; 2. a. giddy, jumpy, merry [V. adjou]

ajjo2 1. a. thick (consistency), dense, viscous; 2. a. knotty, thorny, nuanced, not simple, complex, complicated (S: situation, idea) [V. adjo]

akra n. apartment [V. akraho]

alaravolio n. crud, smut, filth, muck [V. alrabo ‘clay’]

alha 1. v-0. turn; 2. v-0. be startled; 3. v-0. nod, shake head • alhavio n. turn (direction) • alhasto 1. v-do. turn; 2. v-do,io. present, transfer, give (something from a third party) [V. azla ‘prefer’]

alhlu n. drug [P. àdhlūm ‘plant’]

alla v-cv. claim, state [V. alsa]

alllo n. idiocy, stupidity • alllopso a. idiotic, stupid; n. idiot [V. althou]

alna n. sheep [V. alna]

alo a. frozen • alorso v-0. freeze • aloza v-do. freeze [V. alou]

alpu v-0. run (nose); a. runny: irge punzal alpush ‘the man’s nose is runny’ [V. alpù]

amgolo n. horse [V. amgoulo]

ammo v-0. meditate [V. ambo1 ‘ignore’]

ampo v-0. burp [V. ampo]

amvo n. (literary) consequence, ramification [lb. V. ambo2]

analanla v-do. display, show [trunc. analanala < red. anala < V. adala ‘prepare, clean’]

anasha v-do. strangle • anashaho v-0. gasp for air • anashashka v-do. squeeze

anga n. lute

angu n. condensation • angurso v-0. condense [V. angu]

anho a. wide • anhokso n. width [V. anho]

anlusha n. beauty • anlushapso a. beautiful, fine [V. anlùşa]

annota 1. n. gray; 2. n. distant, far-off

antalalaravo n. clay [V. antala alrabol ‘clay from Anta’ < alrabo ‘clay’]

aprako n. obstacle, block, blockage • aprakolio n. fence, protective wall, barricade

ara n. beast, large animal [V. ara]

aru n. husk [V. arù]

asha v-0. fly • ashashka v-0. glide, soar, float (in air) • ashasto 1. v-do. launch, propel (projectile); 2. v-do. cause to work hard; 3. v-do. flatter; 4. v-do. help, be of any use [V. aşa ‘leap’]

aso n. fort

asu1 1. n. joint (between bones); 2. n. pause, break (in conversation, activity) [V. athù]

asu2 n. hovel, shanty

ava n. bark (sound) • avata v-0. bark [V. aba]

avala n. snail [V. abla]

avo 1. v-0. work, labor; 2. v-do. work on, labor on; 3. v-sv. do, perform, be used for, be for (type of task): sek wosulh avoshk nishere iolokhagonshok ‘these spears are for fishing’ • avoho n. work, labor, job, task • avokso 1. n. standard, norm; 2. n. procedure, technique, method, strategy • avoto n. worker, laborer • avonta n. workplace [V. abo]

awa i. hey! (to get someone’s attention)

awhlla n. seashell [V. awothla]

awhunia n. moon; ~ hrolo until nightfall, all day [V. awakhùnya]

azo v-do. love (family)

azona post. behind (when hiding or being hidden)

azu n. sheet [V. azù]


e a. good • evie n. goodness • egle 1. a., n. (positive) enough, sufficient, appropriate, right; v-io. suffice for, satisfy, be appropriate for, be right for, suit; 2. v-io. cir. get by, manage; 3. v-io. cir. (euphemistic) pass away, expire, die • egly a. wonderful, great, terrific • ere n. good sign, good omen; a. auspicious [V. e]

efe 1. n. remains, ruins, remnant; 2. a. ancient

efimry a. shallow [V. iphumrà]

efy v-sv. promise, swear (one’s intention, not a fact) [V. ephu]

egepe n. pet [e gepel]

egze1 n.: ~ we for what?, to what end?, why?; ~ sho because of what?, why?

egze2 1. v-0. (re)direct one’s attention, focus (change of state); 2. v-io. find (after a search); 3. v-io. scout out, reconnoiter, survey; 4. v-cv. rethink; 5. v-cv. redo; 6. v-sv. think of, come up with (idea for plan of action)

ehie n. milk • ehiesye n. udder, nipple • ehiere v-io. nurse (S: mother) • ehieshiy v-0. suckle, nurse (S: baby) [V. ihye]

ehile v-0. travel • ehileshky v-io. trade with [V. ihude]

ehlly n. sibling • ehllillwe n. a new sibling, i.e., someone made a sibling after previously having been an only child [V. ithlu]

ehpe 1. v-0. develop (S: sitting food or drink, or the flavor thereof), age (S: wine); 2. v-sv. turn out, end up

eje n. mellowness, detachment • ejepse a. mellow, detached

ekry n. stance, position (physical)

ekse 1. v-sv. arrange, plan (event); 2. authorize, sanction, approve; 3. v-do. tame, domesticate [V. ikse]

eksy 1. v-sv. let, allow, permit, consent to; 2. v-0. expand, grow; 3. v-0. hatch (S: eggs) [V. iksà ‘help’]

ele1 n. prayer • elete v-po. (ho) pray [V. ele]

ele2 1. n. effect, power, force; 2. n. breeze; 3. n. whisper; 4. v-do. affect, move (emotionally); 5. v-do. boss around, push around; 6. v-do. change musical mode of; 7. v-0. (euphemistic) relieve oneself, go to the bathroom [V. eli ‘tap’]

elekhy a. uncommon, rare, scarce [V. elkhu ‘white, pale’]

elge a., n. some (amount) [V. idgi]

elhy n. fun • elhipse v-0. have fun

eliye n. music [V. ilàği]

elly c. so [V. eslà]

elme n. flower • elmehie n. vase • elmenty n. garden • elmepshe n. spring (season) • elmeswe 1. n. bud; 2. n. fetus, premature baby [V. ilme]

elte 1. a. too bad, a shame; 2. a. eccentric, crazy [V. ilti ‘loss’]

eme 1. n. comfort; 2. n. honor, credit, grace

emgejy n. sweet orange [V. imgeju]

emlle v-io. praise, compliment, encourage, speak well of

emny 1. v-do. like, be fond of; 2. v-sv. well; 3. v-sv. well enough, adequately, sufficiently • emnigle v-do. love, have a passion for (esp. more abstract concepts and entities, activities, rather than specific objects)

emy a. nice, lovely (S: things) [V. imu]

eniwe v-do. weave, braid [V. enàwi]

entry 1. n. land, country, area (geographic or political entities); 2. n. scope, extent, compass, breadth [V. entru]

enty v-io,sv. ask for, request • entihe n. request • entigle v-io,sv. plead, beg; a. desperate • entiglehe n. plea • entishky v-sv. ask meekly, hint, intimate (a request)

epe 1. a., n. one (non-humans); 2. a., n. first [V. hepi]

epik n. few [V. hepi ‘one’]

eplly a. minty [V. epthà]

ere v-do. make [V. ire]

eremrety v-io. cir. be infatuated, obsessed with: eremretigesht efe kiel ‘He was obsessed with ancient literature’

ese n. fabric [V. ethe]

eshe n. happiness, joy, delight • eshepse 1. a. happy, joyful, delighted; v-io. be happy about, be happy with; 2. v-io. be interested in, care about • eshere v-io. make happy, delight [V. eşe]

eshegy v-0. stick out, stick up, poke out

eshhepse v-0. leap [inv. oshhupso]

esihizry n. mosquito

esipy n. seaweed sp. [P. esap]

eske 1. v-do. recognize; 2. v-do. be acquainted with • eskeshky 1. v-do. think to look familiar; 2. v-do. know a little (DO: language, skill)

etly v-0. be joking, be kidding

eve1 n. truth (general concept) • evepse a. true • eveky n. fact, truth (specific) • evere v-io. confirm, validate, uphold [V. ebe]

eve2 i. pardon, excuse me [V. ebi]

evne n. stone, rock [V. ibne]

ewe n. parent

ezwe n. pearl [V. izwe]

ezy n. string (of musical instrument) [V. ezà]


fa i. that’s the way it is, just because, no reason • falio n. excuse • fato v-cv. make an excuse

falasa n. mirror [V. phalatha]

fallla 1. n. solid, a. solid; 2. pulp (in juice) • falllaro 1. v-io. extract, empty, juice, remove solid/liquid from (where that is the desired component); 2. v-io. skin • falllarso v-0. solidify • falllasto v-do. solidify [V. phaltha]

fama n. shoulder • famasio n. armpit [V. phama]

fana n. mustache [V. phada]

fanlo v-do. beat, hit [V. phanlo]

fara1 n. story • farafo n. storyteller • farapso a. interesting; v-io. be interesting due to, have something interesting: neshe-lask farapsosh ‘She has interesting ideas’ [V. phara]

fara2 n. tulip

fara3 n. lychee [P. fary]

farala 1. c. when, while, as; 2. n. time when [V. pharla]

farunia v-cv. regret [V. pharùnya]

fasa 1. v-do. stab, puncture, prick; 2. v-do. insult, taunt • fasaho 1. n. puncture; 2. n. insult [V. phatha, trunc. phathata ‘make cut, gash’]

fasala n. ruler (person); v-do. rule

fatsa n. wagon

fe 1. v-do. (positive) do, use, perform, conduct; 2. v-do. (positive) act upon • fenie 1. n. (positive) action, act; 2. n. verb • fegle v-do. tend to, care for, look after, maintain [V. phi]

fehelizy n. mound [inv. foholoza]

fengy n. letter (document)

fenieme n. adverb [fenie meliege]

fenieve n. pro-verb [fenie velegle]

fenlere a. orange [V. phenelre ‘amber’ n.]

fenzy n. joke, jest

fery1 n. cheek

fery2 post. at the side (any) of, next to, by, outside • ferilte n. side (any), outside • ferily post. on the side (any) of, on the outside of • ferimze post. outside, somewhere to the side (any) of

fetere n. demon [V. phetere]

fewsy n. monarch, king, queen

fezy 1. a. impatient; 2. v-sv. rush into; 3. v-sv. dare, venture [inv. foza]

fie 1. v-sv. encourage; 2. v-io. alert

fihme v-do. invade [V. phuhme ‘grab’]

fiky n. dwarf, midget

filhe n. well [V. phuzle]

fily n. part of speech (grammar)

finje n. shovel [V. phànje]

finne n. toy, game • finlefe v-po. (ho) play (with...) [V. phànde ‘work, task’]

fio v-sv. discourage • fioshho a. discouraged, hopeless, forlorn

firge a. fancy, opulent, luxurious, extravangant

fiuma n. area under eye [V. phyùma]

fle fly v-eo. make polite coughing sound

flelze n. plowshare [M.]

flerime n. morning [V. phlerume]

flesty a. beautiful, gorgeous

flimery n. turtle shell [V. phlàmirà]

flokha flekhy v-eo. splash, sprinkle

flopo flepy v-eo. be repetitive

flor c. (literary; formal) and (used between vocatives): fewsi-my flor ite-syk ‘king and servants!’

flowo flewe v-eo,cv. dreamily

flugo n. fire [V. phlùgo]

fly n. skin [V. phluhu]

fo 1. v-do. (negative) do, use, perform, conduct; 2. v-do. (negative) act upon • fonio n. (negative) action, act

foholaza n. crater

fohomo feheme v-eo. make the sound of rolling waves

folafola n. cockroach [trunc. red. V. foulalo ‘terrible’]

folo 1. n. body part, limb, organ; 2. n. well-being, health [V. phoulou]

fomma n. fish scale

fonga v-do. be named, be called (S: places) • fongaho n. name (of a place)

fonla n. bird sp. (white, long tail)

fonlo fenle v-eo,cv. under the table, hush hush

fonra n. seaweed sp. (black, edible)

fonsa 1. v-do. be relevant to, have something to do with, pertain to, relate to; 2. v-po. (directional post.) go, stretch, lie, run (S: river, town, other landscape feature)

foza 1. a. patient; 2. v-sv. hold back from, restrain oneself from (temporarily) [V. phoza]

fufla fifly v-eo. ruffle, bristle, undulate, ripple

fuhpowa n. joke (story) [V. phùkhpowa]

fula v-0. sneeze [V. phùna]

fuzia v-sv. how?, in what way?

fwiniyle a. tamarind

fworuma v-io. cir. stay up all (S: time period; night implied if unspecified): fworumagoft noftot ‘I stayed up all last night’ [V. phworùma ‘pass by’]

fy n. marriage • fipse a. married; v-io. be married to • fisre v-io. marry [V. phà]


gagwa n. pressure (physical) [red. V. gwa ‘intensity, noise’]

gaha a. which? [V. gaha]

gahta n. lemon [V. gakhta]

gahwa n. liver [V. gahwa]

gakha1 n. diamond

gakha2 n. larynx [V. gakha]

gallla a. some (uncertain identity), random, anonymous, any, whichever, either, one; n. something, someone, anything, anyone [V. galda]

galo 1. a. black; 2. n. pupil (of eye); ~k glily in clear view, obviously, apparent, conspicuous, outright, as one can see [V. galu]

galulu n. carambola, star fruit [P. galīli]

gamala n. interview, questioning

gamgola n. sugar cane

gamiara 1. v-io. become, turn into; 2. v-0. develop (S: cooking food); 2. v-0. ferment • gamiarasto v-do. beat up, knock around, "soften up"

gammo 1. n. hole, pit, tunnel (in ground); 2. n. trap (general term) • gammoto v-0. dig a hole [V. ğambo ‘hole’]

gana n. drum [V. gada]

ganla n. pruning hook [M.]

ganlo n. east [V. ganlo]

garmo girme v-eo,cv. be pretentious

gasho a. tall (S: people) [V. gaşo]

gashto n. readiness (having adequate supplies) • gashtola a. ready, prepared (having adequate supplies) • gashtolarso v-0. get ready, prepare (obtain adequate supplies) • gashtolarsoniopsho n. (literary; flowery) autumn • gashtolasto v-do. get ready, prepare (furnish with adequate supplies) [V. gaşto]

gasto n. outlet, aperture

gazu n. crime • gazuto n. criminal; v-po. (ho) commit (a crime) • gazufollwo n. victim (of crime) [V. ğazù]

gehy n. date (fruit)

gele 1. n. fruit juice; 2. n. drink, beverage • gelepse a. juicy, moist (S: food) • gelehie n. olive [V. gile ‘oil’]

geleshe n. face [V. geleşi]

geleve n. cucumber [V. gàbli]

gely n. black hair • gelipse a. black-haired

gemy n. life [V. gimà]

genihe n. seaweed sp.

gepe n. animal • gepenty n. zoo [V. gepi]

gergy n. thing (very general term)

gerpe n. pride • gerpepse a. proud [V. girpe]

geshe n. head • geshehie 1. n. hat; 2. n. pillow • geshekshe v-do. behead, decapitate • geshesie n. (literary, flowery) neck [V. gişe]

geve 1. n. place, spot, location; 2. n. where?; 3.c. where • gevegle n. position [V. gebi ‘place’]

gevepe gevepy v-eo. make bubbling sound

giasa n. fern

gie n. flower [V. gye]

gijy 1. post. just like, exactly like; 2. post. with (accompanied by someone else doing the same thing, but separately): kharasht ife gjis ‘he hunted with a friend’ [V. gju]

gillly a. particular, certain [V. gàldà]

gilsse n. apple [V. gàltşi]

gishe1 a. short (people) [V. gàşe]

gishe2 n. buyer, customer; v-do. buy, pay for, pay (DO: item, amount of money, bill) • gishenty n. store, market [V. guşe]

gite 1. a., n. seven; 2. a., n. seventh [V. gute]

gla gly v-eo. dart away, be gone in the blink of an eye

gle a. smug, pretentious

glire n. intestines [V. glàre]

gly 1. post. at (place, event), in (environment), with (external condition), for (time period): kiefesht sheiese glis ‘she was reading without any light’; 2. post. along with, to, according to: upufoshkot zozo patsal glis ‘they danced to a slow rhythm’ • glily post. on [V. gulà]

go post. with, along with (another participant cooperating): kharasht ife gos ‘he hunted with a friend’ [V. go1]

gogla v-do. like, enjoy [V. go2 ‘use’]

gogzu n. bronze

gohu v-0. grunt [V. ğohù]

gojopso v-io. gather (large things)

golsha n. bag, purse [V. goulşa]

golvu n. path of destruction [V. ğoudbù]

gonago 1. a. wild, untamed; 2. v-sv. pretend, make believe, act as if

gono gono v-eo. moan

gonsago 1. v-do. hold with the fingers; 2. v-do. keep at a distance (figuratively) [V. gounsa ‘finger’]

gonva v-do. release, secrete, let out, have come out of oneself

gorasho v-do. not be able to stand, not be able to up with

gorpu n. shame • gorpupso a. ashamed • gorpuro v-io. shame [V. gurpo]

grallu n. limit, end (nonphysical)

grive 1. n. wall; 2. n. railing, banister; 3. n. arm (of chair), armrest; 4. n. side, flank (of a person); 5. n. layer (vertical) [V. grube]

gufa v-0. stretch • gufaflu v-do. stretch, extend

gufu n. storey, floor [V. ğuphu]

guha v-do. adore, delight in [V. gùha]

gula n. flat roof [V. gùlğa]

gulto v-0. hiccup [V. ğùlto]

gungu n. viper

guza n. decree, edict, declaration

gwana n. event, happening [V. gùlğa]

gweshy n. mainland, continent [V. gweşà]

gwommu 1. n. spine; 2. n. main road • gwommushka n. snake sp. [V. gwombù ‘staircase’]

gwosha n. island [V. gwoşa]

gwozu n. revenge, vengeance • gwozuro 1. v-io. take revenge on; a. vengeful; 2. a. fearsome, dread, terrible [V. gwozù]

gy1 n. who?

gy2 v-0. speak, talk • gifke a. talkative • gikse n. dialect [V. gàhe]


ha n. sound, noise • hafa v-cv. hear • hafagla v-cv. listen to • hagla n. song (vocal or instrumental) • hafamna n. ear • hafashka v-do. overhear • hakso n. phonetics, phonology • hammo n. noise, uproar • hammopso a. noisy, loud • hapso v-0. make a sound

hafo n. bag [V. hapho]

hagovo n. donkey

hajja a. barren, sterile

hala n. reason, cause

halo v-po. (directional post.) go, leave, depart • haloflu 1. v-do,po. (directional post.) bring, transport, send; 2. v-do. kick out

hama1 n. flash [harahia mal]

hama2 n. coffin [V. hama ‘boat’]

hama3 1. n. what’s-his-name, what’s-it-called; 2. a. blind, free, directed anywhere: hama polol ‘blind anger’

hamara n. south [V. hama ‘boat’]

hampa n. turtle [V. hampa]

hanta 1. n. nostril; 2. n. airhole (in a cave, box) [V. hanta]

harahia n. ghost

hasa n. eagle [V. hasa]

hashhasha n. snake [V. haşhaşa]

hashiurgu n. arrow

haskio n. scythe [H.]

hazo n. child, kid, son, daughter (expresses relationship, not age)

hefe hify v-eo. sound breathy

hegze n. heat • hegzepse a. hot • hegzepshe n. summer • hegzere v-io. heat • hegzeshhe v-0. explode, erupt, blow up • hegzeshheste 1. v-do. explode, blow up; 2. v-do. throw together, throw up (building, strategy, excuse) • hegzeshky n. warmth [V. higze]

heiyvy a. tangy, piquant

heke a. restless

hele1 n. perfection • helepse a. perfect • helere v-io. perfect [V. hele]

hele2 n. river • heleshky n. stream [V. hili]

helime n. god

hemge n. vegetable • hemgejjy n. salad [V. himge]

hente n. iron (metal)

hepe 1. n. basics; a. basic; 2. n. dirt [V. hepi ‘one’]

here n. flame • heremme n. lava • herente n. candle, torch • herepse a. aflame, cooking, on fire; v-0. cook, burn • herele n. chef, cook; v-io. cook, burn • herelenty n. kitchen

heshely n. statue

heshky a. warm [trunc. hegzeshkipse]

heve a. sweet (tasting) [V. hibe]

heze n. planet

hiajovo n. castle [V. hyajobou]

hiasma n. math

hie n. (positive) appearance, exterior, countenance, look, aura, mien

hiege n. goat [V. hyegi]

himny n. bravery, courage • himnypse a. brave, courageous [V. humnà]

himy a. full, filled [inv. humu]

hio 1. n. covering, peel, shell; 2. n. layer [V. hyo] • hiomno n. facade, outer layer (of building)

hiply n. rabbit [V. hàplu]

hiu post. about, concerning, of [V. hyù]

hiykhe n. sum

hla v-do. sell • hlaho n. merchandise, wares [V. hla]

hle1 n. nakedness • hlepse a. naked • hlere 1. v-io. undress, unwrap; 2. v-io. peel, unpeel [V. hle]

hle2 v-0. collapse, trip, slip, fall down (from ground level) • hleshky a. tilted, off-balance, askew, diagonal • hleste 1. v-do. knock over, knock down, fell (something already on ground level); 2. v-do. renege on, go back on, break, breach (promise, resolution); 3. v-do. overwhelm

hleheke hlihiky v-eo. make grating, abrasive sound

hlele n. riverbird [V. hleli]

hlinye n. everything [V. hlunye]

hlite n. bladder [V. hluti]

hlla n. hardness • hllapso 1. a. hard (physically tough, firm); 2. n. stone, pit (of fruit) • hllapsofo v-po. (ho) spit out (pit, seed) [V. thla ‘dark’]

hllakhala n. octopus [V. thla kalal ‘dark mist’]

hllepe n. frog [V. thlepi]

hllimpe n. worm [V. thlumpe]

hlluma 1. a. brown; 2. n. dirt [V. thlùma]

hlluza n. temperature [V. thlùza]

hlly n. softness (yielding, not firm) • hllipse 1. a. soft (yielding, not firm); 2. a. delicate, tender, fragile [inv. hlla]

hloro 1. v-io. enclose, wrap; 2. v-io. trap (animal, fugitive) • hlorolio n. trap [inv. hlere]

hloswo 1. v-do. exile; 2. v-do. (slang) take out, remove from premises

hlowa n. roof [V. hlouwa]

hlu v-0. whisper, murmur • hluho n. whisper, murmur

hluglu hligly v-eo. make vomiting, hurling sound

hly 1. v-0. rest; 2. v-io. forgive

hly hly v-eo. squeak

hmaha n. poison, venom

hmako v-do. walk into (wall, trap) [V. hmako]

hmanta n. flour [V. hmanta]

hmelly n. port [V. hmeslu]

hmille n. spirit, life

hmogo n. attack • hmogoro v-io. attack; a. violent • hmogommo n. act of brutality • hmogommoro v-io. brutalize; a. brutal, vicious, savage, ferocious [V. hmou ‘club, stick’]

hmu v-0. boil • hmusto v-do. boil [V. hmù]

hmy n. limit (physical

hnago n. bird sp.

hnallo n. scar [V. hnaslo]

hnilhe v-0. grow (S: plants) • hnilhefly v-do. grow, raise (plants) • hnilhenty n. fertile area; a. fertile (S: land) [V. hnuzle]

hno n. garbage, trash, rubbish, waste [V. hnou]

hno hne v-eo. laugh slyly (‘hehe’)

hnofa v-do. escape [V. hnoupha ‘leap’]

hnosha a. hostile, antagonistic [V. hnoşa ‘sharp’]

hnu post. instead of, for, as

hnupa n. opinion, stance, inclination, view, viewpoint (in comparison to others) [V. hnoupa]

ho1 1. post. indicates demoted DO of certain verbs; 2. cl. indicates direct object within noun phrase [V. hou]

ho2 n. country, nation [V. ho]

hofo hefe v-eo. laugh mockingly or condescendingly

hogla higly 1. v-eo,io,cv. whine; 2. v-eo. whoosh, whistle, wuther, rustle (S: air); 3. v-eo. smell, stink, reek

hogzo n. cold • hogzopso a. cold • hogzoro v-io. cool [V. hougzo]

hola v-0. swing

hologa n. stew [V. holouga]

homsho n. soup • homshohio n. bowl [V. homşou]

honha a. gray

horu n. whale

hovo 1. a. sour, bitter; 2. a. awkward (S: situations, speech) [V. houbo]

hpo hpo v-eo. go thud

hragazu n. bum

hrele post. after, upon; v-do. precede, come before [inv. hrolo]

hrelepe n. neighbor

hrepe n. talent, special ability (of person or object) • hrepepse a. talented, useful

hrije 1. a. sudden; 2. v-sv. suddenly [V. hruje]

hrikse n. lull, letup, remission [V. yàntri]

hro hre v-eo. chortle

hrolo 1. post. before, preceding, earlier than; v-do. follow, come after; 2. post. in, by (time frame) [V. hrolo ‘until’]

hrunla v-do. raze, flatten [V. hrùnla]

huhpo v-do. disguise [V. hùkhpo]

hujula n. experiment • hujulapsho n. lab, laboratory • hujulata v-0. experiment

hullu n. damage, harm (to inanimate noun) • hulluto v-io. damage, harm (inanimate object) [V. hùslù]

humna n. fear • humnagla n. terror • humnapso a. afraid, frightened; v-po. (sho) fear [V. hùmna]

humu a. empty [V. hùmù ‘bare’]

hunga v-0. bend, bow • hunganto n. fold, bend • hungagva n. (flowery) hill, valley (usually plural) • hungaza 1. v-do. fold, bend; 2. v-do. (colloquial) make a fool of [V. hùnga]

hupu n. garlic [V. hùpù]

hura n. where? [V. hùra]

hurukha n. burden [V. hùrkha]

hwasso n. beast

hwele n. security, safety • hwelepse a. secure, safe • hwefly n. guard; v-do. guard, protect [V. hwe]

hwelhe v-0. return • hwelhekshe n. trade ban • hwelheste v-do. return [V. hwelzi ‘go back and forth’]

hwetle n. innocence • hwetlepse a. innocent

hwoiu n. sin [V. hwoyù]

hwolo n. danger, vulnerability, insecurity • hwolopso a. in danger, endangered, vulnerability, insecure [V. hwo]

hwotlo n. guilt • hwotlopso a. guilty

hwuna n. cave [V. hwùda]

hwupogo v-io. torture [V. hwùpo ‘scraper’]

hy1 n. section, division, area, part (from the point of view of function or quality, e.g. section of book, part of town, room in house) [V. huğu]

hy2 n. silence • hipse a. silent [inv. ha]

hyiy a. mighty, formidable, awesome, terrible, intimidating


ia n. taste • iafa v-do. taste (passively) • iafagla v-do. taste (actively), lick • iafamna n. tongue [V. ya]

iala n. thigh [V. yala]

ialo 1. n. strength; 2. n. determination, persistence • ialopso 1. a. strong; 2. a. determined, persistent; n. determination, persistence 3. v-do., n. torment • ialoro v-do. strengthen • ialosro v-0. strengthen [V. yalo]

iapu n. note (music) [V. yapù]

iarovonto n. workplace

iata n. cliff [V. yata]

iatla c. however, but, though, rather, instead (used to present a contradiction or a substitution, but not mere contrast; the more unexpected clause follows): ramlok sukhosahiokol rommoft iatla shur kalogoh ‘I laid out three shirts but now there are (only) two’

iavo n. elephant [V. yabo]

iawa n. meow • iawata v-0. meow [V. yawa]

iayo n. bat [animal] [V. yayou]

iaza n. kumquat [V. yaza]

ie1 n. knowledge, being informed • iepse v-cv. know (about, that); a. knowledgeable, informed • iesre v-cv. find out, discover (on one’s own) • iepsehe n. information, knowledge • iegle n. intelligence, wisdom, discerning • ieglepse a. intelligent, wise, discerning; v-cv. know in depth, be an expert on (about) • iepseshky v-do. 1. have cursory knowledge of; 2. know (something small and inconsequential) • iepseshkyhe n. piece of trivia, factoid, small and inconsequential piece of information • iere n. teacher; v-do,io,cv. teach, inform, notify, warn • ieshiy n. student; v-cv. learn, find out (information) (from someone else) • ieshiynty n. school • ieshiygle n. disciple, protegé [V. ye]

ie2 n. west [V. ğe]

iege a., n. so much [V. yige]

iehlle n. olive tree

ieje n. hair (colllective) • iejepse a. having hair • ieyejepse a. bald [V. yeje]

iele a., n. too many, too much

ielenere n. spider [ielek nerelh]

ielhy a. free, open, at ease

iely 1. n. time (general concept); n. fut. future; c. fut. later; n. pres. present, now (general period); n. pst. past, history, before, earlier; c. pst. before • ielishky n. moment [V. ğelà]

iemzigy n. mine

ienty v-do. plant [V. ğentà]

ievy n. world [V. yebà]

iewly n. white pomegranate

ife1 n. party [V. uphe]

ife2 1. n. window; 2. n. gap; 3. n. furrow [V. àphi]

ife3 1. n. friend, buddy, pal; 2. n. piece that fits together with another; 3. n. help, aid, assistance [V. àphe ‘coworker, partner’]

ifte n. flood [V. uphte]

ify n. lid, flap (covering or closing something) [V. upà ‘piece of cloth’]

ige1 n. mind [V. àge]

ige2 n. row [V. uge]

igleshy n. harp [V. àgleşu]

igy n. pea [V. ugà]

ihry n. festival [V. àhrà]

ijje1 1. v-do. live in, inhabit, be found in, occur in; 2. v-io. prefer, favor, choose (to use, to be around)

ijje2 a. straight [V. àdje1]

ijje3 1. a. thin (consistency), diluted, watery; 2. a. light (weight) [V. àdje2]

ijy1 n. eyelid; ~k simzy impossible to see or catch, out of sight, out of range [V. àju]

ijy2 1. n. theory, hypothesis, idea; 2. n. unifying purpose or rationale, logical consistency, method, balance where everything has its place • ijypse v-0. match, fit together, be consistent (internally, or among multiple items) [V. àjà]

ikhe 1. n. shore, bank (of river), side (of street); 2. n. row (among others stacked vertically); 3. n. verse [V. ukhe]

ikhne n. ball • ikhnepse a. round, curled [V. àkhni ‘curve’]

ikly n. powder [V. uklu]

ile 1. n. liquid, juice squeezed out of something; a. liquid; v-0. flow; 2. n. gel • ilegly v-0. gush • ilevye n. flow • ilere v-io. juice (fruit), tap (tree trunk), extract liquid from (where the liquid is the desired component) • ilerse v-0. liquefy, melt • ilezy v-do. liquefy, melt [V. àli]

ilegly a. crazy

ileshhe a. exotic

ilhe n. topic, subject [V. uzle]

ilhle 1. n. pot; 2. n. basin [V. àdle]

ilhy1 n. meal [V. àzlu]

ilhy2 v-0. cringe, wince • ilhyste a. corny, hokey [inv. alha]

illy1 n. horn [V. àlsu ‘limb’]

illy2 1. n. stem; 2. n. neck; 3. n. (flowery) spine [V. uslà ‘spine’]

ilme n. environment [V. àlme ‘air’]

ime1 n. wine [var. lime]

ime2 n. poetic form [bf. imefe]

imefe n. poetry • imefelye n. poem [V. umephi]

imme 1. n. example, instance, occurrence; 2. n. newborn [V. àmbe ‘small thing’]

imry n. cube [V. àmrà]

imy v-0. sulk [V. àmu]

imype a. permanent [V. umàpe]

infe n. etiquette, custom • infepse a. polite [V. ànphe ‘behavior’]

ingy n. state of being evaporated • ingysre v-0. evaporate • ingyre 1. v-io. rub; 2. v-io. reduce, burn off (culinary) [V. àngu]

inhe a. narrow, thin • inheste 1. v-do. constrict, squeeze; 2. v-io. hold tight, grip; 3. v-do. capture, catch, trap, hold (S: trap, other object) • inhestevye n. constriction, tension, tightness [V. ànhe]

iniry v-do. stare down

inle 1. v-sv. wonder (if); 2. v-sv. hope (with some doubt) [V. ànle ‘wonder’]

inmere n. stage (theater) [V. ànmeri]

inmy n. saliva [V. unmà]

inty n. gold [V. àntà]

inwy v-do. accumulate, amass, stockpile, hoard • inwishhe v-do. lose (a lot of things, catastrophically): tesh teltek kezekelh inwisshesht na shast ‘she lost all her belongings in the tornado’

io n. ignorance • iopso a. ignorant • ioglo n. stupidity, dullness • ioglopso a. stupid, dull [inv. ie]

iokwa v-do. sneer

iolokha 1. v-do. gather, collect, forage for, fish for; 2. v-do. feel around for [V. yolkha]

iolomo ieleme v-eo. gyrate, undulate

iomo n. day (24. hours); n. fut. tomorrow; n. pres. today; n. pst. yesterday • iomojja n. calendar

iomola n. rubber

iopa post. including [V. youpa]

iora 1. a., n. eight; 2. a., n. eighth [V. yora]

iotma 1. n. circle; 2. v-0. spin, rotate; 3. v-io. go around, circle around, revolve around, wind around • iotmasto 1. v-do. spin, rotate; 2. v-do,io. wind around [V. yotma]

iotsta a. gray [V. yothsa]

ioza v-sv. plot, plan [V. youza]

ipeshhe v-cv. sense, be aware of, perceive, be able to tell • ipeshhefly v-do,po. (lly) show, cause to experience [V. upeşhi ‘understand’]

iple n. art • iplete n. artist [V. uple]

ipy v-0. arrive late, be late

ire n. hope (eagerly, anxiously) • irepse v-sv. hope (eagerly, anxiously) [V. ure ‘writhe’]

irge n. man

iry1 n. cart • iryge v-io. transport, cart, move, import, export • irinty n. road • irintily 1. v-0. go by road; 2. v-0. go directly; 3. v-0. make one’s way, head, proceed [V. àrà]

iry2 n. page, paper [V. urà]

iry3 n. purr • iryte v-0. purr [V. uru]

ise1 a. lax, loose [inv. uso]

ise2 n. path [V. àthe]

ishfy v-do. batter, pound, ram, crash into

ishinty n. nest, hive • ishintyte v-0. nest

ishishy n. rain [red. V. uşu]

ishky v-0. lean, slouch, sag [trunc. ishishky]

ishy 1. v-0. fall, land (from a height); 2. v-0. show up unexpectedly (S: people); 3. v-0. be overwhelmed • ishyste v-do. knock down, knock off, cut down, cut off (from a height) [V. àşà ‘fall, land’]

ishyge n. daze • ishygepse a. dazed [ishy ige1]

ismere v-0. glow [V. uşmere]

isse a. gentle, tender [V. àtşi]

isy n. jar [V. àsu]

ite1 n. area, place, zone [V. uti]

ite2 n. chair, throne [V. àte]

ite3 n. servant [V. ute]

itepe n. vine

itse n. spear [V. àtse]

itstyme n. bargain [V. uthsume]

ity 1. n. small cave; 2. n. dent, crevice; 3. n. slit, rip, tear, hole (esp. natural, not made intentionally) [V. utu ‘dent’]

itykhe n. problematic situation, ordeal, travail • itykhegle n. crisis [V. utàkhe]

ityme n. medicine • itimeshky n. pain reliever [V. àtume]

iu1 post. right behind • iula post. on the back of • iulto 1. n. back (side); 2. n. just a short while ago; • iumzu post. somewhere behind [V. ]

iu2 n. vein

iuka n. gray, white hair • iukapso a. gray-, white-haired

iuma v-sv. also, in addition [V. yùma]

iunta n. jail, prison

iushmaka v-0. scream [V. yùşmaka]

iuva n. gift, present, favor

ive1 n. floor [V. àbe ‘bottom, the pits’]

ive2 n. sulfur [V. ube]

iveshisy n. whore

ivre n. play • ivrefe n. actor • ivrete v-0. act (theatrical) [V. àbri]

iy1 n. there [V. ]

iy2 post. in front of • iylte n. front • iyly post. on the front of • iymzy post. somewhere to the front of [V. yu]

iyfte v-do. swallow

iyle n. weakness • iylepse a. weak • iylesre v-0. weaken • iylere v-io. weaken [V. ğàle]

iyliwe n. coral [V. yàluwi]

iyntre v-0. tremble in fear [V. yàntri]

iysme 1. n. device; 2. a. useful, functional

iystse n. thoroughness; ~ gly exactly, precisely, perfectly • iystsepse a. thorough • iystsete v-sv. thoroughly, completely, well [V. ğàsthe]

ize n. insect [V. àze]

izrete a. muscular, buff

izy n. rib [V. uze ‘branch’]


ja n. settlement [V. ja]

jalo 1. n. component, part, piece, ingredient (from the point of view of construction or makeup, e.g., walls of a building, planning of an event); 2. n. spot, location, place (geographical)

jara n. honey [V. jara]

jaro a. low, short (objects)

jasta n. sharpness (edge or point) • jastapso 1. a. sharp; 2. a. extreme (S: people, regarding their behavior) [V. jasta ‘quality, exactness’]

jata 1. n. point; 2. n. peak, climax [V. jata ‘corner’]

jehe n. beloved, love, dear [trunc. jemeglehe]

jekhy v-do. accept, deem acceptable, approve of

jele1 n. respect • jelepse a. respectful; v-io. respect [inv. jolo]

jele2 1. v-0. run; 2. v-do. chase, run after; shevente ~ be lazy; 3. a. in a rush, in a hurry; 4. a. vibrant, vivacious; 5. a. cool, awesome • jeleshky v-0. jog [V. jili ‘run’]

jelehe n. sparseness • jelehepse a. scattered, sparse • jelehere v-io. scatter, disperse • jelehesre v-0. scatter, disperse (people, animals)

jeleme n. skeleton [var. V. juleme ‘ribcage’ < ju pallas lemel ‘group of ribs’]

jelhy v-0. relax • jelhigle v-0. waste away

jellwe a., n. beloved [trunc. jemellwe]

jeme n. love (friend, non-immediate family) • jemepse v-io. love (friend, non-immediate family) [V. jemi ‘love (romantically)’]

jemmeshe n. universe

jemmy v-do. provide, supply [V. jembu]

jene v-do. belong to [V. jide]

jese n. lightning [V. jese]

jeshime 1. n. fly; 2. v-sv. aimlessly

jestsy n. secret

jetse a. green [V. jetse]

jeve n. pasta

jevy n. leather [V. jebu]

jezire 1. v-do. say happily; 2. v-do. know, speak (DO: a language)

jezy n. chin

jijy 1. n. ripple; 2. n. trifle; a. inconsequential, silly, stupid; 3. a. incorrect • jijyre v-io. flick [red. V. ju]

jikhe a. fuzzy

jile n. ice [V. juli]

jime n. apparition

jimne v-0. bounce

jine v-do. punish, penalize [V. jàdi]

jire a. high, tall (objects) • jirekse n. height

jirge n. eyelash

jisty n. dullness (edge or point) • jistypse a. dull

jity v-cv. do right away, diligently [inv. juta]

jivye n. scroll [V. jubye]

jize v-do. reach, extend to (non-volitional) [V. juzi]

jja1 1. n. custom; 2. n. accent (distinct pronunciation) [V. dja1 ‘accent’]

jja2 n. cluster [V. dja2]

jjalu n. axe [V. djanou]

jjavo n. plant • jjavofo v-po. (ho) plant [V. djabo]

jjimme 1. n. imprint, print, footprint; 2. n. wear, dilapidation; 3. n. (flowery) valley; 4. n. threat • jjimmepse 1. a. having impressions, furrows; 2. a. worn, dilapidated • jjimmere v-io,sv. threaten [V. djumbe ‘footprint’]

jjozo n. a strong drink

jju n. sourness • jjupso a. sour [V. dju]

jjy c. or (exclusive, but weak; at least one of the clauses is probably true, but they may both be false; used to present possibilities and suggestions)

jo cl. indicates DOs of most verbs [V. jou ‘against’]

jofsho a. hideous, repulsive, horrid, horrible, vile, ugly

jolo n. disrespect • jolopso a. disrespectful, obnoxious; v-io. disrespect [V. jou ‘against’]

jomo n. hatred • jomoro v-do. incite • jomopso v-io. hate • jomogla n. loathing • jomoglapso v-io. despise, detest, loathe [V. jomou]

jonso jense v-eo. go astray (unintentionally, while walking)

jopa a. cute

joso n. thunder [V. joso]

jovwo n. monster

jozo n. rag

ju 1. n. stair, step, stool, platform; 2. n. plateau • junta n. staircase • juzwo 1. a. zigzagging; 2. a. convoluted [V. ‘high’]

jugwa v-0. grumble, groan • jugwamna 1. n. stomach; 2. v-do. digest [V. jù gwal ‘high noise’]

julazu n. decadence • julazuto a. decadent (S: person)

junutia n. rake

jupso n. judge; v-do. judge, consider, deliberate on

jushha n. saffron [V. jùşha]

jusma n. form, version, type, kind • jusmajja n. array, display, catalog, index of various types • jusmakso n. specifications, characteristics, details • jusmarmo n. variety • jusmarmoshho a. indecisive, overwhelmed [V. jùsma]

juta v-sv. delay, put off, postpone, stall (to avoid...): jutasht hlowa-jos kfinshen tumna tseny pashopu vulullotus ‘he delayed fixing the roof, until a storm destroyed it’

jy n. thread • jige 1. v-io. sew together, sew up; 2. v-cv. wrap up, conclude, finish up (speaking) • jilye n. needle


ka1 n. this, that (points out something near speaker, addressee, or other referrent)

ka2 n. smell, scent, odor, fragrance • kafa v-do. smell (passively) • kafagla 1. v-do. smell (actively), sniff; 2. v-do. inhale • kafamna n. nose • kapso 1. v-cv. smell, have an odor: pasha kapsosh malogapsoshof ‘the mangosteen smells strange’; 2. n. potpourri, incense [V. ka]

kaja1 n. spice, herb, seasoning • kajaro v-io. spice, season

kaja2 n. peacock [V. kajğa]

kala n. mist, haze • kalala 1. a. obscured by mist or haze; 2. a. distant, far-off; 3. a. soft, quiet • kalapso a. misty, hazy [V. kala]

kalio n. knife [trunc. kasharalio, var. tasharalio]

kalo 1. a., n. two; 2. a., n. second [V. kalou]

kamo v-do. eat • kamogla 1. v-do. savor; 2. v-do. loot (DO: items, not location)

kanga post. relative to, compared to, more than, beyond, considering one’s status as, for: kevresh gelehiene kanganos ‘it’s bigger than an olive / it’s big, compared to an olive / it’s big, for an olive’; v-do. be inferior to, be less than • kangaza v-sv. still, further, anymore: kaiangazash uputonosh llwe silyh ‘he doesn’t dance on tables anymore’

kanta kente v-eo. be sharp (intelligent), on the ball

kantsovo n. mango [P. kántōbo]

kariassa n. xylophone [V. karyatşo]

karonto n. bitumen

kasa n. money, funds, wealth • kasapo a. rich, wealthy • kasaralio a. expensive

kasara n. apricot [V. kasara]

kasata v-do. collide (with), hit, land on: rejjy llwe kasataft ‘I hit my hand on a table’

kashna n. embarrassment • kashnapso a. embarrassed • kashnaro v-io. embarrass

kasta1 n. rug, carpet [V. kasta]

kasta2 n. salad [P. kasdā]

kastsa 1. v-0. wake; 2. v-0. rise (sun) • kastsasto v-do. wake [V. kastha]

katsa v-do. neglect (people) • katsallwo n. neglected person, loner [V. katsa]

ke n. area (conceptual) [V. ke]

kefy n. rainbow [V. kefu]

kehie n. cookie

kele n. marble (stone)

kelny n. grass [V. kelnu]

keme 1. v-0. walk backwards, step back; 2. v-sv. give up (on), turn back from, retreat from; 3. v-io. stay out of, stand back from, give way to; 4. v-io. let down, fail, disappoint [inv. komo]

kemele n. dove

kemty 1. a. dizzy, reeling; 2. a. anxious, distressed, agitated, nervous; 3. a. uncouth, unwholesome, mildly nauseating, mildly revolting

kenef i. watch out!, look out!

kenle n. (literary) dumfoundedness, shock, astonishment • kenlere v-io. (literary) dumfound, shock, astonish [lb. V. kenle ‘confusion’]

kennirse 1. v-do. take off, remove; 2. v-do. undo, reverse [inv. konnarso]

kenny v-do. eschew, avoid, shun, spurn [bf. kennirse]

kere 1. v-cv. believe, think, expect; 2. v-sv. want; 3. vi. act purposely; • kerehe n. belief, idea, expectation • kerelle v-sv. decide • kerellehe n. decision [V. kire]

kerpinze n. elegant, fine, refined

kevelify v-po. (ho) reveal (a secret) [inv. kovolafa]

kevre a. big, large • kevrekse n. size • kevrelle v-0. swell, grow, increase [V. kebri]

kewy 1. v-do. conquer, take over; 2. v-do. detain, arrest, confiscate [V. kewà]

keze n. thing, object, item, belonging • kezejjy n. pile, stack, heap • kezeshiynte n. market • kezesie n. material, raw material, scratch

kfa 1. v-do. break, break up, divide (something that was unitary, or if made of different pieces, not along those lines); 2. v-0. create unrest, disorder, discord, a disturbance, a tumult, a to-do (S: those acting up) • kfaho a. broken [V. kpha]

kfala n. nut [V. kphala]

kfejy v-do. greet [V. kpheju ‘offer’]

kfele n. nipple [V. kpheli]

kfihle 1. v-do. whistle; 2. v-do. lisp [V. kphuhle]

kfovo v-sv. still, keep going (with an element of stubborness) [V. kphoubo ‘refuse’]

kfulwo n. vinegar

kfy v-do. put together (something that was broken), fix, mend, correct • kfigle v-do. set up, organize

kha a. any [V. kha]

khafo1 a. other, alternate [V. khapho]

khafo2 n. maze [V. khapou]

khagma n. salt • khagmala a. salty • khagmaro 1. v-io. salt; 2. v-io. touch up, refine [V. khagma]

khagmu 1. n. dust; 2. n. sediment [V. khagmù]

khallo n. issue, matter

khanza a. short (height, length, width) [V. khanza]

khapa n. logic

khapo n. flag

khara v-do. hunt • kharalho n. prey [M.]

kharta n. form, shape, style • khartakso n. layout, format, formulation

khasmu n. fingernail, claw

khazo n. dryness • khazopso a. dry, dried, dehydrated, dessicated • khazoro v-io. dry, dessicate, dehydrate, blot • khazosro v-0. dry [V. khazo]

khe n. artery

kheje1 v-do. learn (skill, trade, language) [V. kheji]

kheje2 v-do. free, release (from captivity) [V. kheje]

khejehlly a. complete [V. khejethlà]

khejjy1 v-do. bring (object) [V. khedju]

khejjy2 n. rottenness, decay • khejjipse a. rotten, decayed • khejjisre v-0. rot, decay

khejy v-0. settle • khejinty n. settlement

khele a. blue [V. khele]

khelele v-0. twitch

khellle n. wrist [V. kheldi]

khellly a. symbolic; n. symbol [V. khelthà]

khelneshfe n. sky [khele neshfe]

khemie n. pumpkin [V. khimye]

khersy v-0. grow up [V. khersu]

kheshe n. answer, response, reply • kheshere v-io. answer, respond, reply [V. khişe]

khevele n. cat [V. khebli]

khewzy 1. v-do. pull, drag; 2. v-do. pull off, pluck, pick, twist off (from a bunch); 3. v-do. pull out, extract, pluck; 4. v-do. smudge, smear [V. khewzà]

khihe n. square

khilhe n. circumstance, condition • khilhere 1. n. specify, single out; 2. v-do. forbid [V. khulze]

khilje n. lady, woman

khimne n. lap, bosom, breast

khimzy v-0. lie down (state) • khimzyste v-do. lay, lay down • khimzyrse v-0. lie down (change of state)

khinje n. additional, second, more, further, other; ~ ioyopa only, just, merely, simply

khinze n. name [V. khunze]

khinzy a. long, tall • khinzykse n. length [V. khànzà ‘long’]

khipy v-0. shiver • khipisye n. cold weather

khitste a. light (color)

khity1 v-do,io. tap (DO: rhythm or tune; IO: surface tapped) [V. khutu]

khity2 n. leaf [V. khutà]

khize n. moisture, wetness, dampness • khizepse n. moist, wet, damp • khizere v-io. moisten, wet, dampen [V. khàze]

khizy n. meat

khlu1 n. fragment, piece, part • khlusio 1. a. whole, intact; 2. a. pure (not a mixture) [V. khlù]

khlu2 n. vanity • khlupso a. vain

kho1 c. when, while, as [V. kho]

kho2 n. forehead [V. khou]

khogu khegy v-eo. make retching, puking sound

khoko kheke v-eo. make scraping sound

khomia n. meaning

khomlla n. dome

khommo v-0. howl [V. khombo]

khommu 1. n. thorn, barb; 2. a. brusque, gruff, rude, rough, biting (in speech or action) [V. khoumbù]

khomsha n. triangle

khonna v-do. drink [V. khonda]

khopa n. leader; v-sv. lead

khosa n. ash [V. khosa]

khowza v-do. push • khowzashka v-do. press [V. khowza]

khozaja n. catch, haul, plunder, booty

khu n. (flowery) death • khupso a. (flowery) dead • khushka n. exhaustion, fatigue • khushkapso a. exhausted, fatigued, tired out [V. khù]

khujja n. holiness • khujjapso a. holy

khukha n. blade [V. khùkha]

khulmo n. sky (at night) [V. khùlmo]

khuma n. saint

khusha n. question • khushata v-io,po. (hiu) ask

khushlu n. scene (in a painting) [name]

khushnu n. baby • khushnunto n. womb • khushnupso a. pregnant • khushnupsovio n. pregnancy [V. khùşnù]

khutsto a. dark

khutu khity v-eo. make pitter patter sound (like drizzling rain)

khuvwalu n. egg [V. khùbwalù]

khwive n. bump, lump (on something)

kia kiy v-eo. munch

kiahwa n. skull [V. kyahwo]

kiava v-0. smile • kiavamna n. mouth

kie n. writing, literature • kiefe v-po. (ho) read • kiegly v-do. chant • kielye n. document • kielieshky n. message, note, greeting card • kiemme n. book • kiemmehye n. slipcase • kiemmente n. bookcase • kiemmenty n. library • kiemmeshky n. booklet, pamphlet • kienienty n. desk • kieniegvy n. office • kiete v-po. (ho) write; n. writer, author • kietelie n. writing utensil

kigne a., n. favorite [V. kàgni ‘regular, scheduled’]

kiljje n. box, container, cage

kily n. clear air, clearness, clarity [inv. kala]

kinfy n. seaweed sp. [V. kànphà]

kipye 1. n. string, rope; 2. n. path, way (metaphorical) • kipiejjy n. net [V. kipye]

kirme v-0. hum

kiry a. bloodshot, hemorrhaged

kisy n. poverty, lack of money, little money • kisype a. poor • kisirilye a. cheap [inv. kasa]

kizy1 v-do. harrass

kizy2 n. feces, dung, manure • kizyfe v-0. defecate

kla1 post. to, throughout, into, until, till, up to • klagla post. directly to, right up to • klashka post. toward, in the direction of

kla2 n. aching, dull pain • klapso v-0. suffer aching, dull pain

kla kly v-eo. tinkle (sound of glass breaking)

klafo n. boulder

kle n. a lot, much [V. kli]

klemy n. beard [V. klemu]

klla n. origin, root, source [V. ktha]

kllehy n. simplicity • kllehipse a. simple [V. kthihu]

kllepe n. relative • kllepejjy n. family [V. kthepi]

kllohu n. complexity • kllohupso a. complex, complicated [V. kthouhù]

klloma v-0. have leprosy [V. kthoma]

klo a. little (amount); v-cv. hardly, barely

klo kle v-eo. act excitedly, hurriedly, in a ramshackle way

kluwla n. duck [V. klùla]

koho kehe v-eo. explode

koio n. (flowery) drum

kolllo 1. a. sore; 2. a. bothersome, troublesome [V. koldou]

komo v-0. walk • komonio n. walk • komosto v-cv. help, aid, assist

konna v-do. wear • konnarso v-do. put on • konnashka v-do. try on [V. konda]

koporna n. flea

korfu v-io. check, check on, find out about, look into, see about

kosho v-do. thwart, counter, undo

kova n. chest, torso [V. koba ‘throat’]

kovola n. secret • kovolafa v-po. (ho) keep (a secret) [V. kobla]

krago a. ninth [V. krağou]

krasto a. surprising; n. surprise

kre 1. n. belly; 2. n. central room

krimme n. heel

krolu n. back (part of body) [V. kronù]

kromma n. epidemic, plague [V. kromba]

krova v-do. yell, shout (in anger or pain) (DO: direct quote) [V. krouba]

krula n. dislike • krulapso 1. v-io. dislike; 2. v-0. (colloquial) spoil, sour, go bad (liquids)

ksakhu 1. n. section of a limb; 2. n. line (mark, shape) [V. ksakhu]

ksampana n. trading representative [P. ksamfāny ‘friend’]

ksashka n. rice • ksashkajja n. rice dumpling

ksemy n. thrill [V. khsemu]

ksinfe 1. v-0. set out, go out (to do something); 2. v-io. join in, participate in (temporarily or on a trial basis) [V. ksinphe]

ksova v-sv. persuade, convince (to act): ksovaft ksyiynfenesh lelemme glis ‘I convinced him not to set out in the rain’, ksovashkot lufonowon ka naza glill fewsy hoh ‘They persuaded the king to have him sing at the banquet’ [V. khsoba]

ksulllo n. beat, pulse, pang (one out of many), step, stop (on a route), occurrence, instance, wave [V. khsùldo]

ksy ksy v-eo. sound like hands rubbing together

kupu n. unit of currency, equal to 1/100 traia

kushka 1. a. young, new; 2. a. unfinished, in production, in the works • kushkapo a. childish, immature [trunc. kuvrushka]

kusso n. dog [V. kùtşa]

kutsto v-0. (formal) sit, be seated (state) • kutstorso v-0. (formal) sit down, be seated (change of state)

kuvru a. small, little, tiny • kuvrullo v-0. shrink, contract [V. kùbrù]

kuzu n. urine • kuzufo v-0. urinate

kwantro v-sv. reflect, refer to, betray, indicate (passively)

kwipe n. shine, gleam • kwipepse v-0. shine, gleam

ky n. axle [V. ku]


la cl. indicates IO [V. kla]

lafa n. valley

laga post. among

lagla 1. v-0. stay, persevere, remain, withstand; 2. v-sv. 1. continue, keep (continuously; not repeating); 2. v-sv. drag out • laglaza v-do. maintain, preserve [V. lagla]

lalia n. edge [V. lalya]

lamo 1. v-do,io. call (in loud voice), shout, yell (to get someone’s attention; 2. v-cv. declare, set, establish, legislate [V. lamo]

lapla n. large hail [P. lābla ‘hail’]

lapra a. full (satiated with food) • lapragla a. over-full (of food) [V. lapra]

lasa1 n. countryside [V. latha]

lasa2 n. ostrich-like bird [V. lasa]

laso v-do. write [V. lathou]

latoloso 1. v-0. hide; 2. v-do. cover; 3. v-do. put out, extinguish (fire); 4. v-do. cut off (e.g. from contact, trade); 5. v-do. act dishonestly regarding, cheat on (task, examination); 6. v-do. spy on; 7. v-io. lock oneself up with, delve into, plumb (document, issue); 8. v-io. be absorbed in, assimilate to, merge with • latolososto v-do. hide

le cl. indicates noun that is identical with that embedded in the verb

legre n. peace, tranquility [V. leğri]

lekhy a. real, actual

lele n. rain • lelemme n. heavy rain [red. V. le ‘knock, tap’]

lelerive n. monsoon [lele rivel]

leme 1. a. same, identical; v-do. be the same as; 2. n. identical twin; 3. v-do. be as much as, to the same degree as; post. as much as, according to, in accordance with, following; • lemegle a. mutual, balanced, symmetrical [V. leme ‘1. pair; 2. group’]

lemmy n. half

lemny n. cloud • lemnipse a. melancholy, sullen • lemnishhe n. overcast condition, darkness • lemnishky n. fog

lemry n. top of foot [inv. lomra]

leny n. love, adoration, fawning • lenire v-io. love, adore, fawn over, dote on [V. ledu]

lepe 1. v-do. be connected to, be joined to (physically; state); a. together, joined, connected; 2. v-do. communicate with, get message across to • lepeste 1. v-do. connect, join (physically); 2. v-do. show, demonstrate; 3. v-do. prove, confirm, validate, verify • leperse v-do. be connected to, be joined to (change of state) [V. lepi]

letiyge v-sv. long for, yearn for (something formerly possessed or experienced)

lha1 1. v-do. throw; 2. v-do. wrestle [V. zla1 ‘lunge, attack’]

lha2 n. lightness (weight) • lhapso a. light (weight) [V. zla2]

lhajo n. blow, hit, punch [V. zla jou ‘lunge against’]

lhajugwa v-0. have a stomach ache [jugwa, inf. lhakho]

lhakho v-0. have a headache [lhakhopso < V. zla khol ‘attacking forehead’]

lhakova v-0. have a sore throat [kova, inf. lhakho]

lhammo n. large pomegranate [V. zolambo]

lhe n. pleasure • lhere 1. a. pleasant, pleasurable; v-io. please, satisfy, gratify; 2. v-io. engross, absorb [V. zle ‘large, great’]

lhehy n. knee [V. zlehu]

lhelle n. handle, knob

lhellle v-do. climb [V. zlelthi]

lhepy n. significance, importance • lhepipse a. significant, important; v-0. matter [V. zle pul ‘great importance’]

lheshelly n. large panda-like animal [V. zle şeslul ‘great bear’]

lhety v-do. meet (first time)

lheve 1. v-do. reach (over to, up to, etc.), stretch to (S: people): norajo lhevem? ‘can you reach the ceiling?’; 2. v-do. arrive at (location) (S: people); 3. v-do. shine on, illuminate; 4. v-sv. declare, assert • lhevekse n. reach, ability (S: people) • lhevenshe v-do. retract, recant (statement) [V. zlebi]

lheze n. power • lhezepse 1. v-io. have power over; 2. v-io. blame, accuse • lhezere v-io. empower • lhezesre v-0. come to power, take over [V. zle zel ‘great power’]

lhileny v-do. cuddle

lhite a. salty [V. zlute]

lhohllu n. weed [V. zlothlù]

lhoju 1. v-0. yell, shout, groan loudly (without pronouncing specific words); 2. v-sv. energetically, excitedly, enthusiastically [trunc. lhojugwa < V. zle jùgwal ‘great groan’]

lholllu n. slave [V. zlolthù]

lhoshu v-cv. get away with

lhovonsho 1. v-do. accept, espouse (idea); 2. v-do. consider important, care about; v-do. psv. be important, matter, be of interest • lhovonshogla v-do. promote (idea) [inv. lhevenshe] • lhovonshoho v-do. interest, concern, care

lhufo n. hail [V. zlùphou]

lhulo n. zombie

lhy1 c. if [V. zlu]

lhy2 n. heaviness • lhily a. low, deep (sound) • lhipse a. heavy [V. zlà]

lia 1. n. seed; 2. n. bait [V. lya]

lifte v-0. appear, become visible, become perceptible [V. luphti]

ligly v-io. yield to, give in to [inv. lagla]

lijmy v-do. frighten, scare [V. làjmà]

lile n. songbird [of imitative origin]

lime n. wine [V. làme]

lire n. kind, type, sort, variety, species • liremme n. category, class [V. luri]

liry 1. a. empty, hollow; 2. a. hungry • liryrse 1. v-0. calm, subside, abate; 2. v-0. empty out, hollow • liryrste v-do,v-sv. suppress, put down, subdue • liryste v-do. empty, hollow out, clear [V. lurà ‘calm, still’]

liryte 1. n. hole; 2. n. mountain pass; 3. n. shortcut; 4. n. abbreviation [liry itel1]

liwe n. gem, jewel

lla n. here [V. sla]

llafa n. grammar [V. slapha]

llalga n. pattern [V. slalga]

llalo post. to the disadvantage of, on • llalokso n. disadvantage, drawback, weakness, deficiency; [inv. llile]

llassa n. yolk [V. slatşa]

llawa post. as, just like (in appearance, sound, mood) [V. slawa ‘near’]

llawlo n. fox

lle1 a. positive, optimistic [inv. llo]

lle2 1. v-0. sit for a while, lounge around (state); 2. v-sv. work on for a long time, gradually, slowly • llerse v-0. sit down for a while (change of state) • lleste a. laborious, time-consuming

llefe n. another time; v-0. repeat; v-sv. again • llefepshe n. anniversary

lleme n. order, arrangement, sequence • llemepse a. in order • llemere 1. v-io. arrange, put in order, organize; 2. v-io. use well, use every part of • llemesre v-0. turn out okay [V. sleme]

llery n. public passenger cart, bus

llesty n. (literary) sun [V. slestu]

llie v-cv. know how [V. thye]

llile post. for (the benefit of) • llilekse n. benefit, advantage, merit, use, purpose, point [V. slàle]

llilhe a. curved, bent, twisted; v-0. curve, bend, twist

llinte 1. n. direction; 2. n. orientation [V. slànte]

llinye n. proverb [slinye < G.]

llise v-do. miss, long for [V. slàse]

llizy 1. v-0. advance (in battle); 2. v-io. follow (leader) [inv. lluzu]

llo a. negative, pessimistic [V. slo]

llomo a. disorder, diasarray • llomopso a. disordered, random • llomoro v-io. scramble, reorder, mix up [inv. lleme]

llongo llenge v-eo,cv. rashly

llu1 a. bitter [V. slù]

llu2 1. v-do. tie, bind; 2. v-do. solve, take care of • llushho n. knot [trunc. V. slùmyato]

lluha n. steam [V. slùha]

lluhna n. distant area, distance

llumia n. bow (knot) [V. slùmya]

lluzu 1. v-do. avoid (other’s activity); 2. v-0. retreat (from battle) [M.]

llwe n. table [V. thwi]

lly post. 1. indicates demoted DO in a causative construction; 2. as regards

llyie a. light, pastel

lo 1. n. being, occurance; v-0. exist, happen, occur, take place; 2. v-do. be • lolio n. state, condition, status • lomgu v-0. be born • lomguflu v-do. give birth to • lomgullwo n. new parent (previously childless) • lomgupsho n. birthday [V. lo]

lofa v-do. cut hair of

lofo lefe v-eo. procrastinate, loaf around, act slowly

lollla n. place where something belongs [V. slùha]

lommo lemme v-eo. wobble around, waddle

lomnapso a. mildly happy, happy with reservations, satisfied [inv. lemnipse]

lomno lemne v-eo. be sometimes happy and sometimes not [lommo lemme and lomnapso]

lomo a. different, distinctive • lomorso v-0. change • lomorsogla 1. v-0. develop, evolve; 2. v-0. succumb, give in (to person, idea, emotion) • lomosto v-do. change, influence, effect [V. lomo]

lomra n. sole (of foot) • lomrago 1. v-io. step on; 2. v-io. play (drum) • lomragva n. ground, floor [V. lomra ‘foot’]

lopo n. coconut [P. lóp]

losho n. boldness • loshopso n. bold [V. loşo ‘obstruction, breaking up’]

loshto n. island of Khafos • loshtopo n. Khafos person • loshtosfo n. Khafos language [trunc. loshoto < V. loşoto ‘peninsula’ < ‘obstruction’]

lovasa v-cv. be furious, enraged (about) [P. lōbas]

lovuma v-do. ravage

lowtama v-0. commit suicide

lufo v-po. (ho) sing [trunc. lurulufo]

lufto v-0. disappear, vanish [inv. lifte]

lukho n. tip (endpoint) [V. lùkho]

lulka a. pathetic, pitiful

lulo n. grape [V. lùlo]

lumu n. rambutan [P. lumī]

lunva n. comb

lurulu n. lullaby [V. lùrlù ‘song’]

lusu a. purple [V. lùsù]

lutu lity v-eo. make fluttering sound

luwsho n. seaweed sp.

ly 1. a. present; v-po. (locational post.) be (somewhere); v-do. be at, attend; 2. v-io. encounter, face, witness • linye n. presence • lirse v-po. (directional post.) go, come; ~ zegne kla crouch, squat, duck • liste 1. v-do,po. (directional post.) put, place; ~ sulto kla settle, bring an end to, conclude, complete; 2. v-do. reveal, pull out, take out


ma n. sight (what is seen), image • mafa 1. v-cv. see; 2. v-cv. tolerate, put up with: mafaf zuniumof vona mewil glis ‘I’ve put up with you snoring for a long time’; 3. v-sv. should, find it appropriate, want • mafagla v-cv. look at, watch • mafamna n. eye • mafamnasio n. eye socket • mafashka v-do. notice • manshopso a. invisible • manshosro v-0. fade [V. ma1]

mahla 1. a., n. five; 2. a., n. fifth [V. mahla]

majovo n. lament [V. majoubo]

mala n. what? [V. mala]

malho 1. v-do. come upon, find (unintentionally); 2. v-do. interrupt (unintentionally) [V. malzou ‘get, receive (passively)’]

maloga n. strangeness • malogapso a. strange

mama a. fat • maksho n. famine [red. ma < V. ma2]

mamava a. fat [var. mama]

mamgo n. cake [V. mamga]

marfa n. dried fruit [V. marpha ‘fruit peel’]

marga n. fullness, wholeness, completion • margaro v-io. practice, work on, reinforce

mariu n. tyrant, despot

maronto v-do. bake

marwa n. throat • marwapo a. hoarse, throaty (S: speech, not people) • marwaposto a. hilarious, very funny

mastolo n. tower [V. mastoulo]

mavo v-do. put together, assemble, fashion (from parts) [V. mabou]

mazgo mezgy v-eo. slow down, wind down

me n. kiss [V. me]

megy v-do. wash (DO: another person)

mehe 1. v-do. pay attention to; 2. v-do. support (person, idea); 3. v-do. be in the habit of doing; 4. v-io. believe in, follow, espouse (idea, practice) • mehevie 1. n. attention; 2. n. support; 3. n. habit [V. mihe ‘hold’]

mele 1. n. a lot, much, many; ~ leme a lot, very, really; a. a lot of, much, many; 2. v-sv. a lot, very, really: melesh kamonosh ‘he eats a lot’, melem ehilenesh ‘you really have him travel a lot’; 3. a. great, intense, acute, large, big, heavy, quite a [V. meli]

melegeshy n. friend [V. melgeşà]

melhy n. strand of hair

meliege n. neighbor [V. melyegi]

melre 1. c. like how (stronger than tseny); 2. c. enough that, such that [trunc. melere < V. melre]

melwe post. against, contradicting

memgezy n. path, footpath (cut through vegetation)

mente v-do. follow, pursue, track, go after, stalk [V. mente]

mentele v-io,cv. say, speak, tell, talk (about, of, how, about how, about when): irge-las kalalak neflekel mentelesht ‘she spoke to the man about the distant islands’, mentelesht mirygle merelel pamotoshnof ‘he said how he was going to kill a fat pig’ • mentelehe n. statement, utterance, speech • mentelegle v-io,cv. describe, explain • menteleshky v-io,cv. mention, say casually [V. nenteli]

menzy n. tendon

mepetre n. anthill [V. mepitri]

meple v-0. swim [mulo repele]

merele n. pig [V. merli]

merge n. earth (planet)

merke v-0. stop, pause, take a break (esp. while journeying; for a meal, to complete a task, or to stay overnight)

merne v-do. (literary) create, fashion • merneshky v-do. create, bring about, lead to (situation) [V. merde]

mershy n. laughter • mershite v-0. laugh • mershishky n. giggle • mershishkyte v-0. giggle [V. merşu]

merze n. small bowl

meshy a. awake [inv. mosha] • meshigly a. animated, enthusiastic, lively

mestele mistele v-eo. (colloquial) do a crappy job [mistele]

mesy n. father [V. methu]

metle n. herd

mewy n. time, duration, length, how long (time)?

mie n. life • miepse a. alive; v-0. live • miepsegly v-0. flourish • mieyepse a. mortal [V. mye]

mifte n. fat [V. muphte]

milekhe 1. v-sv. desire, will, fancy; 2. v-cv. be touched by (emotionally) [V. mulkhe ‘dismiss’]

mingy v-do. stick to, adhere to, clump with, attach to [V. màngu]

mio n. death (concept, state) • miopso 1. a. dead; 2. a. rotten, spoiled • mioro v-io. kill • miosro v-0. die [V. myo]

mire v-0. sing • mirehe n. song (primarily vocal) [V. mu ‘air’]

mirge 1. n. coat, cloak; 2. n. regalia [V. màrge ‘coat, cloak’]

miry 1. v-0. open; 2. v-0. disperse, come apart, part: lemnik miryshket ‘the clouds parted’; 3. v-0. spread out, extend oneself, stretch out, splay; 4. v-0. peel, flake • mirygle 1. v-0. pop, burst; 2. a. huge, fat, giant (S: esp. animals) • miryste v-do. analyze, unravel, examine, sort out, try to figure out • mirizy 1. v-do. open; 2. v-do. peel, flake pieces off; 3. v-do. spread • mirizygle v-do. unlock • miriziglelye n. key [V. murà]

miste 1. n. spectator, onlooker; v-cv. look at, watch (person, performance); 2. a. the rest of, the remainder of, all the other

mistele n. dump, hole (used mockingly of buildings, institutions, areas) [inv. mastolo]

mive v-do. break, break up, take apart, disassemble (something made of different pieces) [inv. mavo]

mkhafto n. dagger

mkhurmu v-do. enrapture, captivate, inspire, enthrall, spellbind

mla a. ordinary, normal, regular, usual, routine, standard [inv. mly]

mlalo n. waterfowl [V. mlalou]

mlekhe v-0. show up, arrive, come along, appear (S: people, animals) [V. mlekhi]

mlete n. furnace

mlime v-do. have phlegm

mlisyehte n. reflection [mly siekhtel]

mlo mle v-eo. act tired, drowsy

mly 1. a. opposite; 2. a. extraordinary, stand-out • mliste v-do. skip, leave out, pass by

mmapso a. very fat, obese [inv. mmipse]

mmeiy a. ugly

mmipse a. skinny, thin [trunc. mimmypse < V. mumbu ‘hunger’]

moho 1. v-do. not pay attention to, ignore, neglect; 2. v-do. pass by; 3. v-do. step over • mohogla v-do. actively ignore, avoid, distract oneself from • mohorso v-do. renounce, reject, recant, wash hands of, forget about • mohorsonsho v-do. reaccept, take back, forgive [V. mouho ‘drop’ < inv. mihe ‘hold’, and subsequent sense development inf. that of mehe]

moja n. clothes [V. mouja]

mologosha n. enemy [V. molgoşa]

monfasu n. twilight

mormo n. water, body of water • mormogva n. ocean, sea • mormonta n. lake • mormonto n. pond [V. mourmo]

mosha a. asleep; v-0. sleep • moshagjo a. tired • moshamosha n. narcolepsy • moshanta n. bedroom • moshanto n. bed • moshantoshka n. cradle • mosharso 1. v-0. fall asleep; 2. v-0. deteriorate, decline, wane; 3. v-0. set (sun); 4. v-0. fall out (while still in process; S: hair) [V. moşa]

mosha meshy v-eo. cry out for one’s parent(s) during the night (S: young children) [first syllables of mesy and shisy, also inf. mosha and mursha]

mostolo mastolo v-eo. (colloquial) do a good job [inv. mestele mistele]

motsa 1. n. knuckle; 2. n. hinge

mowka n. villager, townsfolk [V. mowùka]

mratu 1. v-0. delay; v-sv. delay, put off; 2. v-po. (hiu) wait for, await (event); 3. v-io. (positive) leave behind, leave undone, neglect [V. mratù ‘be idle’]

mrefne v-sv. advise, recommend, suggest • mrefnehe n. advice, recommendation, suggestion • mrefnelie n. proverb, saying • mrefneswe v-cv. imply, hint, insinuate [V. mrephni ‘say’]

mrewe 1. v-do. choose, pick, select; 2. v-do. intercede in, intervene in; 3. v-do. strain, extract (solid, from liquid)

mrinte v-io. welcome [V. mràntu]

mrity 1. v-0. act immediately, jump in; v-sv. immediately, right away; 2. v-po. (hiu) not wait for (event); 3. v-io. (negative) leave behind, leave undone, neglect [inv. mratu]

mrowo v-do. reject, turn down (one of several options) [inv. mrewe]

mru n. cultivated field [V. mrou]

mrusha v-0. flee, run away, fly away [V. mrouşa]

mu n. moo • muto v-0. moo

mulo n. water • mulohio n. cup • mulohiommo n. large cup, mug • mulola v-0. float (in water) • muloro v-io. water

mumma n. dough, batter [V. mùmba]

mumra n. despair • mumrasio a. insurmountable, unsolvable • mumrapso v-0. despair [V. mùmra]

munasha v-0. roar [V. mùnaşa]

munwa v-do. be called, be known as (S: objects, concepts, not people or places)

mura 1. v-0. close; 2. v-0. heal (S: minor surface wounds) • muraza v-do. close • murazaglo v-do. lock • muramuraflu 1. v-do. blink (eye); 2. v-do. flex (muscle) [V. mùra; sense (2) inf. mire]

mursha n. tear (liquid) • murshata 1. v-0. cry; 2. v-cv. bewail; 3. v-sv. reluctantly • murshamma n. sob, wail (loud) • murshammata v-0. sob, wail, bawl (loudly) • murshashka n. whimper • murshashkata v-0. whimper

musa a. next, following [V. moutha]

muta n. armor [V. mùta]

mutlu mitly v-eo. giggle

mwekmy v-do. gouge out the eyes of [P. mwèkma]


na1 post. between [V. da]

na2 n. tornado [V. na]

naja v-sv. stop, cease • najasto v-do,po. (lly) stop, cease [V. daja]

nala n. life force, animation, spirit [V. dala]

namahio n. collar [V. nama ‘neck’]

namgo n. plate [V. damgo]

nammo1 n. yam

nammo2 n. humidity • nammopso a. humid

nampo v-do,io. put on top of, load onto [V. nampou]

namwo v-sv. need, demand [V. namwo]

narakha n. banana [V. narkha]

narmo v-0. begin, start • narmosto v-do,po. (lly) begin, start [V. darmo ‘uncover’]

nasa n. acid [V. datha]

nasha n. onion [V. naşa]

nasta n. devil

nava 1. n. pain; 2. n. moment of downfall, crisis, upheaval • navapso 1. v-po. (ho) be in pain from, suffer from; 2. v-0. suffer downfall, crisis, upheaval; 3. v-io. be bested by, be outdone by, lose to, be defeated by; 4. v-io. indulge, oblige, cater to, humor, pamper, spoil • navaro 1. v-io. hurt, cause pain, harm; 2. v-io. bring to a crisis, downfall, upheaval • navaroho n. sufferer [V. daba ‘pain’]

navu n. explanation

naza1 1. n. basket; 2. n. feast, banquet • nazafa v-po. (ho) feast on [V. naza ‘basket’]

naza2 post. beyond

ne c. and then (the second event immediately follows the first) [trunc. ieline] [V. daza]

nefle n. small island

nege n. paste, cream (culinary) [V. nege]

negeme n. pear [V. degeme]

negzy n. fruit [V. negzu]

nejere v-0. move (house) • nejeregle v-0. migrate (S: large group)

nejge n. velvet [P. neshgē]

neke n. angel

nekre n. root (tree) [V. dekre]

nele1 a., n. too much • neleshky a., n. (negative) enough [V. nene < ne ‘a lot, much’]

nele2 n. canvas

nelhe n. feather [V. nelze]

nemkere n. song sung while walking

nenle n. bait, trigger; v-do.: ~ haloflu we mislead • nenlegle n. incentive, motive [V. nenli ‘bring’]

nere1 a. only, sole

nere2 1. v-0. go for a walk, stroll; 2. v-do. visit; 3. v-sv. do occasionally; 4. v-sv. do for a short while; 5. v-sv. try out; a. noncommittal; 6. a. fleeting, ephemeral • nerevie 1. n. walk, stroll; 2. n. visit • neremme v-0. plod along • nereshky 1. v-0. tip-toe; 2. v-0. prance • neremne n. leg • neremnehie n. pants

neshe n. idea [V. neşi]

neshfe1 a. white [V. deşphe]

neshfe2 n. thought • neshfepse v-sv. think about, ponder, imagine • neshfesie n. brain • neshfeshhe n. one who thinks too much [V. dişphe]

netry n. ankle

netste n. noun [V. nithse ‘name’]

netsteme n. adjective [netste meliege]

netsteve n. pronoun [netste velegle]

nevite n. debate (between two people) • nevitegly n. debate (communal, national)

nia n. ink • niafolyo n. pen [V. nya]

niamo n. copper [V. dyamo]

nielve v-do. be (color): khele nielvesh ‘it’s ‘blue’; a. colored • nielvehe n. color • nielvegle v-do. be strongly colored: khele nielveglesh ‘it’s very blue’; a. colorful, bright, bold • nielvezy v-do. dye, color • nielvezilye n. dye [V. delbe]

nielvity n. stain [nielve ‘color’ + ity ‘hole’]

nihte n. fringe [V. nukhte]

nijy 1. a. first, original, native; 2. n. first moment; 3. v-io. precede [V. dujà]

nilekhe n. safety, sturdiness, stability • nilekhepse a. safe, sturdy, stable, sound [V. nàlkhe]

nimmy n. monkey [V. nàmbu]

ninje 1. v-do. look at closely, peer at, scrutinize, study; 2. v-do. critique, criticize, review • ninjegle v-do. edit, tweak • ninjeshhe v-0. be caught, be snagged, be found out

ninkhe n. kiln

nintele v. besiege

ninvy v-do. return (borrowed item) [inv. nunva]

niny v-do. burst into, barge into [V. nudà]

ninze v-do. punishment, penalty [V. nunze]

nirme v-0. end, finish • nirmeste v-do,po. (lly) end, finish [inv. narmo]

nishe n. energy, vigor, liveliness • nishepse a. energetic, vigorous, lively [V. nàşe]

nishere n. fish [V. dàşeri]

nisy n. base (chemical)

nofto n. night [V. nouphto]

nohafa n. best friend

nohpa 1. v-do. foment, stir up, induce, elicit, draw out, bring out; 2. v-io. cir. covet, be envious, be jealous: pkhery nohpagosht jele shas ‘The cripple was jealous of the runner’

nonfa v-do. 1. call, seek out, send for; 2. turn against [V. nonpha]

nonga1 n. purpose, point, goal, end, aim, motive • nongala a. finished, done, achieved, ready [V. nounga]

nonga2 n. intermittent pain • nongapso v-0. suffer intermittent pain [V. nonga]

nonza a. blind

nopa n. salvation, deliverance • noparo v-io. save, deliver

nopowo n. class, course • nopowonta n. classroom

norajo n. ceiling [V. dorajo]

norgu n. buttocks

norha v-do. obey, listen to

nostso nestse v-eo. make crunching sound

novo n. snow • novopso n. winter [V. nobu]

novo neve v-eo. (flowery) be soundless as falling snow

novorsko 1. n. snowdrift; 2. n. snow-covered hill [novo orosko ‘snow hill’]

nowasa a. enchanting

nnupa n. ring

nremlhe n. decoration • nremlhere v-io. decorate, adorn [V. nrimzle ‘paint’]

nrety 1. v-io. share, cooperate on; 2. v-cv. think that maybe, possibly [V. nretu]

nrotu 1. v-io. hoard, keep for oneself, refuse to share; 2. v-io. keep to oneself, isolate oneself [IO same as S]; 2. v-cv. dismiss the possibility that; 3. v-cv. conceal the fact that, refuse to admit, deny [inv. nrety]

nrulo 1. v-do. shave; 2. v-do. clear away [V. nrùlo]

nruta n. tragedy [V. nrùta]

nu n. war • nulio n. battle (as part of larger war) • nushho n. war-dead • nushka n. battle, skirmish [V. du]

nufra n. vice • nufrashho n. partaker of a vice, addict

nuha v-0. lurk

nuja 1. a. last, final; 2. n. last, final moment; 3. v-do. follow (in a sequence) [V. nùja]

nuna 1. v-0. withdraw (from military occupation); 2. sneak out [V. nùda]

nunva 1. v-do. borrow (object other than money); 2. v-do. use briefly; 3. v-do. repeat, reiterate • nunvashho 1. a. having lent something out without it being returned; 2. a. cheated, deprived, having gotten a raw deal [V. nùnba]

nusha n. ox

nwala n. grass [P. nwàl]

nwefne n. sling

nwile n. bird [V. dwàli]

ny post. of (time of)


o a., n. bad, evil • olio 1. n. iniquity, evil act; 2. n. misfortune, tragedy • ommo a. evil • oro n. bad sign, bad omen; a. inauspicious [V. o]

ofo a. modernistic, innovative, modern, newfangled, new [inv. efe (sense 2)]

ogalu 1. n. mud; 2. a. muddy; 3. a. adulterated, compromised, insincere [V. ogalù ‘mud’]

ogzo 1. v-0. become distracted, lose focus; 2. v-io. lose, misplace (physical object); 3. v-cv. wonder, marvel, be astonished; 4. v-sv. fail to think of (idea for plan of action) • ogzoflu v-do. distract, blind

oha v-cv. suppose, surmise, guess, predict: ohasht vanto mulo rohwasnof ramlok iomolh hroloh ‘she predicted that the boat would sink within three days’ [V. oha]

oholoshho a. mundane

ohumra n. depth • ohumrapso a. deep [V. uhùmra]

ojja n. louse [V. odja]

ojo 1. v-sv. avoid (own activity), refrain from; 2. v-sv. toil; 3. v-do. (literary) detest, abhor (person, personal characteristic) [V. ojou]

olho 1. v-cv. complain about, whine over; 2. v-cv. boast of, brag about; 3. v-sv. complain, protest in the hope that

oljo a. ridiculous [V. ouljo ‘huge, tremendous’]

ollia v-cv. seem, give the impression that [V. othya]

ollo 1. n. grain (in wood); 2. n. trail (of cloud)

olokha a. common, widespread • olokhasto v-do. spread, disseminate, popularize [inv. elekhy]

olto a. insane, crazy

oma n. angle

omo1 n. middle [V. omo]

omo2 1. n. discomfort; 2. n. dishonor, discredit, disgrace, shame [V. omou]

ompoza v-do. damn, condemn [V. oumpoza]

omwa n. epitome, paragon, prototype

onnoza n. alcohol [V. ondouza]

ontura v-io. mock, make fun of

onwagu n. vacuum, absence

onwu n. disappointment, dejection • onwupso a. disappointed, dejected, let-down

opa n. lump (of something) [V. opa]

opoiu 1. a. stale, stagnant; 2. a. sturdy, stable, solid, well-built; 3. a. consistent, reliable [V. opyù ‘sturdy’]

opolu n. magically created creature

ora n. thief; v-do. steal [o ral]

orta n. shard [V. orta]

osa 1. v-do. defend against; 2. v-do. be mismatched to, not go with, clash with (figuratively) • osara n. fortress

oshhu 1. n. stillness; 2. n. depression (emotional) • oshhupso 1. a. still; 2. a. depressed (emotionally) [V. oşhù]

osho 1. n. sadness; 2. n. (colloquial) illness, disease • oshopso 1. a. sad; 2. a. (colloquial) ill, sick; v-po. (ho) (colloquial) be sick, ill with; 3. v-io. (colloquial) be sick, ill through lack of (water, food) • oshoro 1. v-io. sadden; 2. v-io. rebut, contradict; 3. v-io. (colloquial) sicken, make ill • oshosro 1. v-0. get sad; 2. v-0. (colloquial) get sick, ill [V. oşo ‘sadness’]

oslo n. dungeon [P. oslo]

ota v-0. act, behave • otanio n. behavior, comportment, demeanor • otaniormo n. culture [V. ota]

otia v-do. crash into [V. outya ‘press’]

otso n. jaw [V. otso]

otsto n. thing • owotsto n. nothing [V. othso]

ovo n. falsity, falseness (general concept) • ovopso a. false • ovoka n. falsehood, lie • ovoro v-io. deny, negate [V. obo]

owoga v-do.: safonto ~ slur (speech)

ozasho n. boom

ozo a. wicked [V. ozou]


pa1 1. n. method, way; 2. n. structure, ordering (of text, oration, argument); 3. n. formula, recipe, plan, design [V. pa1 ‘way, path’]

pa2 post. by (indicates amount or amount of time something is done) [V. paha]

pa3 i. (literary) how? [V. pa2]

pahala a. wide-eyed

pakha n. silver [V. pakha]

pala1 n. cheek [V. pala]

pala2 v-0. live, dwell (permanently) • palanto n. abode, dwelling • palashka v-0. lodge, stay, reside (temporarily) • palashkanto n. hotel, inn

palla post. of (amount, group) [V. pasla]

palo n. harmony (music)

pamo n. yogurt [V. pamou]

pamoksho v-0. clot [V. pamo ‘blood’]

pamoto v-do. kill • pamotoniogla n. massacre • pamotogla v-do. murder

pampo n. cut stone for building

pana 1. n.: ~ kla to where?: halom paiana klash? ‘where are you going?’; 2. v-0. (literary) go where?: paianam jelemev? ‘where is he running to?’ [V. pada ‘go where?’]

pania n. concern, worry • paniapso a. concerned, worried; v-io. be concerned, be worried, worry about • paniaro v-io,po. (lly) concern, cause to worry about [V. panya]

papso post. like (in value, worth, composition) [V. papso]

parakama n. thunder

parma n. life [V. parma]

pasha n. mangosteen [P. pash]

pashopu n. storm [V. paşopù]

pashovo n. cow [V. paşobo]

patsu n. rhythm [V. patsù]

pava a. cute

pe1 n. person • pekshe n. refugee, beggar, riffraff • pejjy n. tribe, people, nation, ethnic group • perme n. community, society [V. pi]

pe2 part. indicates proper nouns [V. pi ‘person’]

pejelwe n. peninsula [pejy elwel ‘arm(-shaped) land’]

pejy n. arm • pejige v-io. punch [V. pejà]

pelny n. strap (on clothing)

pemie 1. a. flat, level, smooth; 2. a. balanced, steady • pemiemne n. layer, course, course (e.g of stones) • pemiezy 1. v-do. smooth out, flatten; 2. v-do. balance, steady

pemswe a., n. nine [trunc. pemiswe]

pemy 1. a., n. (archaic) ten; 2. a., n. (archaic) tenth

pentisse a. spindly, long and winding

penzy a. cream, ointment (medicinal, cosmetic)

perile n. amethyst

perite n. palm (of hand)

petilepy lepy v-eo. drag something out by going back and forth between alternatives, dilly-dally

peze n. care, caution; ~ go carefully, cautiously; ~ goio carelessly, sloppily [V. pize]

pezwe n. chisel

pezwezy n. scissors, shears

piamo n. rose [V. pyamou]

pilhy n. alliance [V. puzlu]

pille n. target [V. pàthe]

pily a. excellent [M.]

pinfe n. speck, bit

pire n. spouse [V. pure]

pite n. illness, disease • pitepse a. ill, sick • pitere v-io. sicken, make ill • pitemgy v-0. fall ill, sick suddenly and drastically

pitre 1. a. impossible; 2. a. impressive [inv. putro]

pity v-do. overcome, survive • pityrse v-do. recover from, recuperate from • pitirshky v-do. miss (opportunity, event)

pkhe 1. v-do. waste; 2. v-do. misuse, misdirect, misappropriate; pushtak ~ speak in vain, waste words; 3. v-cv. do constantly, incessantly [V. pkhe ‘waste’]

pkhery a. crippled, lame

pkhu n. iris (part of eye) [V. pkhù]

plemnipse a. full, plump, ripe • plemnisre v-0. fill out, ripen, well up (tears)

plerek i. please [G.]

plige n. butter

pllere n. happiness, gladness, contentedness • pllerepse a. happy, glad, content, pleased • pllerele v-io. cheer up, please, gladden [V. pthere]

plluga n. tree stump [V. pthuğa]

plumo n. tree (smaller) • plumormo n. grove

ply ply v-eo. chortle

pohano v-do. wipe, wipe off, pick (nose), clean out

poia v-0. come (S: animal; usually used as a command)

poiu n. bowl, plate, cup, pot, pan, any concave dish or vessel [V. pouyù]

pojmarna v-do. dismiss, fire, expel

pola1 n. list [V. pola]

pola2 n. trill (musical) [V. poula]

polo n. anger, temper • polopso 1. a. angry; 2. a. fierce, harsh, serious • poloro v-io. anger

pomio 1. a. uneven, unlevel, bumpy; 2. a. unbalanced, unsteady [inv. pemie]

ponanssa n. dried meat, jerky

pongo penge v-eo. be nervous

ponsa n. authority, official [V. pounsa]

porato n. back of hand [inv. perite]

porio n. task, errand, chore [V. poryo]

porsa n. whey [V. poursa]

porzu n. stretch, expanse, sweep, vast area, (of land); a. vast, wide, expansive

poshha n. generation

posho n. bear [V. pouşou]

posna n. ant sp.

poto v-do. shut, close (eyes, mouth)

powalo v-0. wander, amble, roam, clamber • powaloza 1. v-do. overthrow; 2. v-do. overcome (illness, situation)

pozo n. rashness, carelessness • pozopso a. rash, careless [inv. peze]

pra v-do. graze on

pra pry v-eo. act too important to concern oneself with someone else, thumb one’s nose at someone else

pre n. kindness • pregje 1. a. needy, helpless; 2. n. infant • prepse a. kind, nice (people)

pro 1. a. unkempt, disheveled, rumpled, toussled, messed up; 2. v-0. beat, throb, pulsate • proflu 1. v-do. dishevel, rumple, toussle, mess up; 2. v-do. make one’s heart beat quickly; 3. v-do. massage, caress [V. prou]

pruha v-do. spread, smear [V. prùha]

prumo n. fork

psago n. adventure [V. phsagou]• psagopso v-0. veer off course, falter

psana n. seaweed sp. [V. phsada]

pse v-do. (positive) feel, experience, have (physical or mental quality), know, speak (a language) [V. pse]

psegly a. obvious [trunc. liniepsegly]

psemme v-io. best, outdo, defeat, win against [V. psembe]

psenty n. nook, niche

psery n. thought, notion, idea [V. phseru ‘suggestion, advice’]

pshokho n. crowd • pshokhopso a. crowded [V. pşokhou]

psine n. earlobe [V. phsàde]

pso v-do. (negative) feel, experience, have (physical or mental quality), know, speak (a language) [V. pso]

pulakha n. mucus, snot

pulkhavra v-0. sneeze [pulakha vara]

pulla v-do. meet (not first time)

pulo n. mayor [V. pùlo]

pumo n. oval [V. pùmou]

punago punago v-eo. tumble

punwa v-io. quarry, mine • punwara n. quarry

punza n. nose [V. pùnza]

pura 1. n. section, area, part (of something homogenous in construction and function, but with some variation in surface form or quality, e.g. section of painting, part of book); 2. n. shelf [V. pùra ‘layer, terrace’]

purakiu n. space

pushta 1. n. line (of speech or writing); 2. n., a. this, that, it (refers to previously expressed thought) [V. pùşta]

putro 1. a. possible; n. possibility, chance; v-0. be possible; 2. v-sv. pres., pst. be able to, can; 3. v-sv. fut. might, may, will possibly • putroza v-io,sv. invite, bid, allow, offer (to have someone do something) [V. pùtrou]

putu v-do. succumb to (disease) • puturso v-do. be in process of succumbing to (disease) [inv. pity]

puza v-do,io. reward, pay • puzakso n. reward, pay, salary

puzga v-0. take shelter, take refuge


ra v-do,io. (negative) take from • ragla v-do,io. seize from • rashka v-do,io. borrow (money) from [V. ra ‘take’]

raga n. child, kid (expresses age, not relationship) [V. rağa]

ramlo 1. a., n. three; 2. a., n. third [V. ramlo]

ramo 1. n. hill; 2. n. forehead, brow; 3. n. (flowery) wave [V. ramo]

ranpo 1. v-do. wave; 2. v-do. shake out, wring out

rashka v-do,io. give out, apportion, measure out [inv. rishky]

rava1 n. elephant

rava2 n. tail [V. raba]

ravlo n. (literary) reach, grasp • ravloshho v-0. be overtaken, be caught cleverly or against the odds [V. rablo]

ravo1 n. coin [V. rabou]

ravo2 n. storm • ravommo n. typhoon, hurricane [V. rabo]

raza 1. a., n. four; 2. a., n. fourth [V. raza]

re v-do,io. (positive) give, bring, furnish, equip [V. re]

rege n. park

regy n. health • regipse a. healthy • regire n. doctor, healer; v-io. heal • regisre v-0. heal [V. rigà]

regzy n. bundle, package

reje n. thin blanket • rejemme n. thick blanket

rejjy1 1. n. hand; 2. n. aim; 3. v-do. slap, hit; 4. v-do. knock on; 5. v-do. annoy, bother • rejjige 1. v-io. point at, aim at; 2. v-io. scold, reprimand • rejjihye n. glove • rejjilye n. sign (sign language) • rejjisfe n. sign language [V. redjà ‘hand’]

rejjy2 a., n. ten [rejjik ‘(two) hands’]

releve n. north [V. relebi]

reme 1. v-do. split, cleave; 2. v-do. refute; 3. v-do. win (argument) [V. rime]

remme 1. v-do. lift, pick up, raise; 2. v-do. express (emotion); 3. v-do. arbitrate between • remmevie n. (euphemistic) vomiting • remmeniepse v-0. (euphemistic) vomit, throw up [V. rimbe ‘push aside’]

rente n. sail [V. renti]

reny n. shrimp [V. renà]

repele v-do. move (own body part)

repwe n. chicken

reshepe n. quartz • reshepezwe a. jagged

reshhe 1. v-do. observe; 2. v-do. ponder, deliberate, think over [V. reşhi ‘approach’]

reshkile a., n. tenth [rejjy2 kalo]

reze a. yellow [V. rezi ‘orange’]

rigy n. leek [V. ràgà]

rihpe v-do. be named, be called (S: people)

rijmy 1. a. sour; 2. a. fitting, appropriate (in the sense of ‘just desserts’), ironic, sickening [V. rujmu]

rinwe n. notch, slit

rishky 1. v-do. gather (small things); 2. v-0. nitpick; 3. a. petty; 4. v-io. put appropriate things onto, set up, set (table), dress, clothe; 5. v-io. conjugate, decline

rive n. wind • rivete v-io. fan • rivemme n. gale, blast • riveshky n. breeze [V. ràbe]

ro v-do,io. (negative) give, bring, furnish, equip [V. ro]

rogapso a. sick, ill

roho v-0. engage in self destructive behavior, hurt oneself

rohwa v-do.: mulo ~ drown, sink; nonga ~ be futile, pointless, fruitless, in vain

rojja v-do. turn inside-out out • rojjaho a. inside-out out [V. rodja]

rojja rejjy v-eo. hold hands [rejjy]

rojva v-do. mash, pound, crush • rojvalio n. pestle • rojvavio v-do. cacophony, clamor, commotion, tumult

rommo 1. v-do. put down (physically); 2. v-do. lay out; 3. v-do. land, go ashore (DO: boat) [inv. remme]

romo n. walnut • romofo v-po. (ho) crush to extract oil [V. romo]

romono v-do. surrender to, concede to

rota n. dried lime [V. routa]

rugu n. bridge [V. rùgù]

rukho n. air • rukhofo v-po. (ho) breathe, blow (air from one’s mouth), bubble • rukhofomno n. lungs • rukholio n. breath, bubble [V. rùkhou]

rulo 1. a. how many, how much?; 2. n. number • ruloto v-po. (ho) count

rumiono rimyene v-eo. be mucillaginous

rumiu n. paint • rumiugo v-io. paint • rumiugoho n. painting

rumula n. lettuce

runga n. loop, buttonhole, eye (of needle)

rush c. near when, near where [V. rùşa]

ruzama n. tangerine

ruzva v-0. preen oneself, beautify oneself [V. rùzba]

ry v-do,io. (positive) take from [-rA < V. ra ‘take’]


sa n. texture • safa v-do. feel, touch (physically, passively) • safagla 1. v-do. feel (physically, actively), touch (actively); 2. v-do. feel • safamna n. finger [V. sa]

safo n. language • safojja n. language familiy • safokso n. grammar • safonsho n. translation • safonshoflu v-do. translate, interpret • safonto n. mouth • safopso v-0. be able to speak [V. thaphou]

sagra n. indifference • sagrapso a. indifferent

saha n. gas (state of matter)

saha sehe 1. v-eo. feel relieved; 2. v-eo. die down; 3. v-eo. back down, grant amnesty, let someone off, let something go

sama n. year [V. thama]

samofa v-do. jump down into [V. samoupha]

sanno n. brick [V. sando]

sapa n. sandstone [V. sapa]

sarumawa v-0. have a cold

sarva n. plum [V. tharba]

sata 1. a., n. six; 2. a., n. sixth [V. sata]

se a. this, that (points out something near speaker, audience, or other referent) [V. the ‘this, that’]

segehy 1. n. white of eye; 2. n. eyeball; 3. n. (literary) cloud • segehishhe n. cluster headache

sekhe a., n. that (points out item at a distance from speaker, addressee, or other referent)

sere v-io. exit (from) • serely n. entrance, exit [V. seri]

serivye n. handle [V. therubye]

serze v-do,io. say tentatively

seze a., n. this, that (points out an additional item) [V. the zes ‘to the side of this, that’]

sha 1. post. by means of, with, through: komoshon iy klas tshitymme shall ‘He’s going to walk there with a cane’; 2. post. by, for (indicates demoted subject): kamoshohosht posho shas ‘She was eaten by a bear’, vinle pitresh rava shash ‘It’s impossible for an elephant to jump’

shala1 a. rough, coarse, gritty [V. şalğa]

shala2 n. down (feathers) [V. şala]

shalo n. farm • shalopo n. farmer [V. şalou ‘plain’]

shama n. vampire

shanva n. afternoon [V. şanba]

shapa shepe v-eo. master (a skill, subject)

sharguga n. scepter, wand

shasta n. hut

shaza v-0. blow (S: objects, not wind): khity shazasht shelte klas ‘the leaf blew away’ • shazaflu v-do. blow (S: wind, not people): rive khity shazaflusht ‘the wind blew the leaf around’

she post. from (place, time, person), of, by (creator, author) • shelte 1. n. place that is away; 2. n. origin • shegle post. away from • sheshky post. from the direction of • shehe n. result, consequence, effect

shegvizge n. weather [shegvy tes geleshe]

shegvy n. sky [trunc. shesegvy < V. şethigbà]

sheklime a. unsatisfactory, not up to par [P. sheklam ‘be bad’]

shelie n. fur • sheliefe v-po. (ho) pet [V. şelti]

sheliy n. majority, most [V. şelyà]

shelle a. pretty, attractive, beautiful [V. şesle]

sheme n. liking • shemegle n. love (things) [V. şime]

shenze n. mountain • shenzeshky n. hill (esp. foothill) [V. şinze]

shepe n. freedom [V. şipe]

shese n. light • shesepshe n. day (when there’s light) • shesepshely a. diurnal • shesehie n. lantern [V. şethi]

shesty n. sun [V. şistà]

shety 1. v-sv. try, attempt; 2. v-cv. deal with, address: gyiy shetineshen wamnak? ‘who will deal with the intruders?’ • shetivye n. try, attempt [V. şetu ‘look at’]

sheve v-0. sit (state) (general term) • shevente n. seat, place to sit • sheventejjy n. bench, couch • sheverse v-0. sit down (change of state)

shezme n. light source [V. şezmi]

shfugo v-do. sweep • shfugolyo n. broom [V. şphù ‘brush’]

shia 1. v-do. (negative) get, receive (passively); 2. v-do. catch, get (disease) [inv. shiy]

shihiy n. postposition • shihiyshky n. particle (grammatical)

shihye n. appreciation, thanks, graditude • shihyere v-io. show gratitude, thank [V. şàhye]

shillne n. wing [V. şàthne]

shily a. soft (smooth or fine to the touch) [V. şàlğà]

shinme 1. a. surprising, quite a; 2. v-sv. propose, offer, suggest (idea); 3. v-sv. intend, mean (to do something) [V. şàme ‘surprise’]

shirejny n. forearm

shisy n. mother [V. şàsà]

shiveve v-do. whip • shivevelye n. whip [red. shive < V. şube]

shiy 1. v-do. (positive) get, obtain, acquire, win, attain, achieve (actively); 2. v-do. catch, grab, take, snatch (object); 3. v-do. focus on, pay attention to (state); 4. v-sv. succeed in, manage to [V. şyu]

shketse 1. v-0. move; 2. v-0. react • sheshketse 1. v-0. shake, totter, wobble; a. wobbly; 2. a. limber, nimble, agile, flexible • shketsevie 1. n. movement; 2. n. reaction • shketseste 1. v-do. move; 2. v-sv. force, drive

shky n. insignificance, unimportance • shkipse a. insignificant, unimportant; v-0. not matter [V. şku ‘lightness (weight)’]

shlowo shlewe v-eo. be blurry

shne n. bucket [V. şni]

shnile v-0. run out (of supply) [V. şnàle ‘avert, avoid’]

sho c. because; post. because of [V. şo]

shoga n. small cart

sholu v-0. blossom [V. şoulù ‘turn inside-out’]

shompiu 1. n. vassal; 2. n. tribute [G.]

shopa n. energy, ability, wherewithal (to do something at a particular time)

shoskhu n. mushroom

shoso n. darkness • shosonto n. shadow, shade • shosontola v-0. rest in the shade • shosopsho n. night • shosopshola a. nocturnal [V. şothou]

shovo 1. v-0. stand (state); 2. v-po. (we) wait for, await (person); 3. cv-po. (we) count on (person) • shovorso 1. v-0. stand up, rise (change of state); 2. v-0. pick up, get going, take off (figuratively) • shovoza v-do. make wait, hold up, stall

shte n. hatred (general concept) • shtete v-io. hate • shtetelie n. hatred (specific) [V. şte]

shu 1. n. time; n. fut. then (future time); n. pres. now; n. pst. then (past time); 2. n. when?; 3. i. pres. okay now, so?, well? (expresses desire to get to the point or reach a decision): shur, vashom wa vaioshom? ‘well, are you coming or not?’ [V. şù]

shugzo n. quiver

shuhio n. the opposite of thankfulness, "thanks a lot" (said sarcastically), resentment [inv. shihye]

shunva 1. v-do. pour; 2. v-do. swarm with, be teeming with, be riddled with; 3. v-do. (colloquial) get rid of, dispose of; 4. v-do. (colloquial) demolish [V. şùnba ‘pour’]

shuza n. lime (fruit)

shy n. dream (during sleep or daydreaming); ~k fremze really, truly, actually • shipse v-0. dream

siehte n. image, picture [V. thyekhte]

sihty v-0. wash oneself

simme n. rat [trunc. sifimme ‘large mouse’]

singe n. lemur

sinke n. tiger

sinlery n. unattractiveness, unsightliness, ugliness • sinlerypse a. unsightly, unattractive, ugly [V. sunleru]

sinty n. toe [V. suntu]

sio n. base, basis, foundation; a. basic, fundamental • siolyo n. mortar (used with pestle) • siomno n. foundation (of building, road)

sisy n. mouse [var. sy < V. suphu]

skata n. door

skefy n. crystal

skulvu v-0. curdle • skulvulio n. type of cheese [V. skùlbù]

sla sly v-eo. pierce (physically)

smara n. flaw, fault, defect, problem

smejy n. fish sp. (small, blue-gray)

smona a. forgetful [V. smoda]

sneky 1. v-do. admire; 2. v-do. approve of, endorse, appreciate; 3. v-io. thank

snoja a. spectacular, astonishing, incredible, breathtaking, amazing

snoku 1. v-do. resent, bear a grudge; 2. v-sv. act grouchy

snono snene 1. v-eo. linger, take one’s time; 2. v-eo. be running late (S: person)

snora n. clan [V. snora]

snorga n. column, pillar • snorgazwo a. erect, standing straight, standing tall

sny n. eyebrow

soga n. mound [V. thoğa]

sogma n. responsibility • sogmapso v-0. take responsibility, act responsibly [V. sogma]

sogu 1. a. wavy, wrinkly; 2. a. shifty, dodgy, untrustworthy

sololiu n. kidney [V. solodyù]

somma n. anchor [V. somba]

somonga v-do. fit (size, shape), fill, take up all of

songa n. mint

sopo v-po. (hiu) know (person) [V. sopou]

soro sere 1. v-eo. chase: vashoftush soro sereftef ‘I came chasing after him’; 2. v-eo,io. follow from (logically), be implied by; 3. v-eo. be rampant: pite soro seresht miryshtef ‘disease spread rampantly’; 4. v-eo. bolt, dash out [sere]

sorva 1. v-do. choke on; 1. v-sv. overdo, do too much [V. sorba]

sova n. spring (water source) [V. soba]

sovo n. word • sovojja n. phrase • sovojjajja n. sentence • sovojjakso n. syntax • sovokso n. morphology • sovomma n. polysynthetic word (containing noun and verb) • sovonta n. sign (road, store) • sovormo n. lexicon, dictionary [V. thoubo]

sovo seve v-eo. be understanding, be empathetic

spehy n. land, property

sre n. fin [V. thre]

sropo srepe v-eo. make sound of being wiped up (esp. in one wipe)

stekhe n. witch

sto1 n. cause; v-sv. cause [V. sto]

sto2 post. at the bottom or top of • stola post. on the bottom or top of • stolto n. bottom or top • stomzo post. above or below

stsele 1. v-do. place, put in proper place, put away; 2. v-do. report, recount [V. stheli ‘put, place’]

stsofna 1. v-0. wilt, spoil, go bad (S: plants, food); 2. v-0. faint, fall (esp. from internal cause); 3. v-0. fail, lose; 4. v-0. be incomprehensible (S: speech); 5. v-0. die off, become extinct; 6. v-io.: gele-la ~ be thirsty • stsofnashka 1. v-0. stop short (of completing something), break off; 2. v-0. be unclear (S: speech, ideas) • stsofnaswo 1. a. uneasy, unsettled; 2. a. unstable, unsure, precarious, weak [V. sthouphna ‘wilt’]

suhara n. fidelity, faithfulness • suharapso a. faithful

sukhosa n. chest, torso • sukhosahio n. shirt [V. thoukhota]

sulia n. rule, policy

sulo n. opinion, belief • sulopso v-cv. consider (something to be...), opine, believe

suma n. oil • sumala a. oily, greasy [V. thouma ‘yellow’]

sumpa n. ape [V. thoumpa]

surpa n. screen (decorative)

suru n. law [V. sourou]

swe 1. n. ability; ~ leme as much as one can, to the best of one’s ability; 2. v-io. be short of, lacking • swepse a. able; v-sv. be able • swefly v-sv. enable, allow, facilitate [V. swi ‘be able’]

swese a. attractive, enticing; v-do. attract, entice

swo 1. a. crude, unfinished, unrefined, coarse [inv. swe]; 2. a. poor, meager, shabby, pathetic • sworso v-0. go to pieces, deteriorate, fall apart, crumble, regress

swompu n. pole [V. swompù]

swoso v-do. disgust, repulse; a. disgusting, repulsive, gross, off-putting [inv. swese]

sy post. at the top of • silte n. top • sily post. on the top of • simzy post. above, over [V. thu]


tafa tify 1. v-eo. clap softly, flap around; 2. v-eo. stammer

takhna a. boring

talava 1. v-do. mix, stir; 2. v-0. daydream [V. talba]

tamporo 1. v-io. forget; 2. v-io. collapse, fall from (IO: power, prominence, legitimacy) • tamporollo v-io. decline, deteriorate in (power, prominence, legitimacy) (S: governments, people, status) [V. tampo ‘reprieve’]

tanga 1. v-io. impress; 2. v-io. make proud

tanjo v-do. understand, comprehend • tanjoza v-do. explain, clarify to someone (DO) [V. tanjou]

tano 1. v-do. drop; 2. v-do,io. toss, throw (something soft, a short distance); 3. v-do. knead

tano tano v-eo. thud

tanpo tanpo v-eo. go bang

tantro v-do. have, own, possess • tantrogla 1. v-do. keep, hold on to; 2. v-do. value (something that one has); 3. a. stingy • tantroglaho a. private, personal [V. tanùtro]

targa 1. n. soldier; 2. n. army [V. darga]

tarso 1. v-do. get, receive (passively) (generally positive); 2. v-do. receive unexpected visit from [trunc. tantrorso]

tashara 1. v-do. cut; 2. v-do. cut down, chop down (tree); 3. v-do. alter, adjust; 4. v-do. distinguish between, separate; 5. v-do. determine, figure out, tell [V. daşğara]

taso n. steel

tavla n. upper arm [V. tabna]

te1 post. indicates possession [V. te ‘create, make, form’]

te2 v-do. (positive) create, make, form; n. (positive) creator, maker • tegly v-do. (positive) build, make, form, construct (with planning and purpose) [V. te]

tege v-io. take advice from, heed, listen to

tegy v-0. fly (S: insects) [V. tegu]

tehllety v-sv. often, frequently

tehny n. unity, togetherness • tehnily a. united, unified, together, joint • tehnilyrse v-io. join, unite with (long-term or permanently) • tehnilizy 1. v-do,io. unify, unite, bring together, conflate, join; 2. v-do,io. (colloquial) give

tehy n. coast, beach [V. tehu]

tejy n. love (romantic) • tejishhe v-io. be in love with, be enamored of • tejishherse v-io. fall in love with [V. teju]

tekhite n. handful

tele 1. n. foot; ~ she seriously, solemnly; 2. n. (archaic) anchor; 3. n. negative consequence, tradeoff (esp. unexpected) • telefe v-0. drop anchor • telehie n. shoe [V. tili ‘heavy’]

telte 1. a. whole, entire; 2. a. all, each, every (in plural) • teltekse n. nature, natural order • telteksekshe n. miracle (for good or ill), Act of God [V. delte]

temy v-0. cry

tene a., n. one (humans)

tenky 1. v-do. pick, collect, gather (fruit; off of plant); 2. v-do. pick through, sift through, go through; 3. v-do. paddle, row (DO: water) • tenkimne n. pole for picking fruit

teny 1. v-do,io. say, tell, state, relay, relate (DO: type of information told, or direct quote): shegvizge teninemyf ‘tell me the weather’; 2. v-do. produce, lead to, attract: sek negzikel izek tenishken ‘these fruits are going to attract flies’

tery a. astringent [V. teru]

teshe n. tense (grammar)

teshpe n. sharp jabbing pains, pangs • teshpepse v-0. suffer sharp jabbing pains, pangs

tevesy v-do,io. discuss (with) [V. tebesu ‘argue’]

tevy v-do. leave to grow or progess unchecked (plants, hair, problems) • tevihe a. overgrown, wild, out of hand [inv. tova]

tezy n. navel, belly button [V. tezà]

tfato 1. n. difficulty, inconvenience; 2. n. stubbornness; 3. n. discomfort • tfatopso 1. a. difficult, hard, inconvenient; 2. a. stubborn; 3. a. uncomfortable, inhospitable • tfatoshho 1. v-io. struggle with, try to deal with; 2. v-0. be neglected [inv. tfite]

tfato tfite v-eo,cv. stubbornly, persistently

tfe n. line (of people, things)

tfihle v-0. wither [V. tphàhle]

tfite 1. n. ease, easiness, convenience; 2. n. acquiescence, compliance; 3. n. comfort • tfitepse 1. a. easy, convenient; 2. a. acquiescent, compliant, yielding; 3. a. comfortable [V. tphuti]

tfumu 1. n. surrounding ring, petals, frill, crown; 2. n. reverberation, repercussions, effects • tfumuka 1. n. petal; 2. n. effect, repercussion • tfumulio n. secondary quality or meaning, connotation [V. tphùmù]

tikhny a. exciting

tilge 1. n. dew; 2. n. puddle [V. tudge]

timpere v-io. remember, recall, think of [inv. tamporo]

tio post. at the front or back of • tiola post. on the front or back (direction) of • tiolto n. front or back (side) • tiomzo post. somewhere to the front or back of

tire 1. n. ambition; 2. n. lust • tirepse 1. v-io. have ambition for; 2. v-io. lust after; 3. v-io. pull on, tug on; fly ~ egg on

titsty n. state of being revealed, out in the open • titstypse a. revealed • titstyre 1. v-io. reveal, uncover; 2. v-io. divulge, betray (someone’s identity), inform on, give away, tell on [inv. tutsta]

tkhezvy n. fool, wretch, poor thing [V. tkhezbu]

tkhise v-do. realize (suddenly) [V. tkhàsi]

tkhoshova a. blood red, maroon [V. tkhoşouba]

tlammo n. smoke • tlammonto n. chimney [V. tlambo]

tlenle 1. n. body, corpse; 2. n. pushover • tlenlehie n. skin • tlenleste 1. v-do. take advantage of, exploit (person); 2. v-do. overcome, overwhelm, get to: tlenlesteshehesht khushka ‘He was overcome by exhaustion’ [V. tlenle]

tlova n. frustration • tlovapso a. frustrated [V. tloba]

tlusa n. rodent [V. tlùsa]

to n. (negative) creator, maker; v-do. (negative) create, make, form • togla v-do. (negative) build, make, form, construct (with planning and purpose) [V. to]

tofra n. palm tree (general term)

tofru 1. v-do. betray, commit treason against; a. traitorous, treacherous; 2. a. ironic, perverse; 3. v-io. abandon, desert, leave (IO: dependent people) • tofruswo a. risky, perilous, precarious, dangerous (S: situation)[V. touprù ‘hide’]

toho tehy v-eo. make bumping sound

tohwa n. chain (object)

tolo n. unexpected positive consequence [inv. tele]

tolo tele v-eo. pad (manner of walking) [tele]

toloso v-cv. think so, agree, acknowledge • tolosonsho v-0. change one’s mind [V. tolouso]

tonanga v-do. poison

tonta n. cost, expense, bill

torfa n. crab

torga 1. n. tongs; 2. v-do. pinch; 3. v-do. kill (insect) [V. tourga]

torjowsa n. arch

torva v-do. play (musical instrument)

tova1 v-do. prune, trim (plant, nails) [V. toba]

tova2 n. starfish

tra a. red [V. dra ‘red clay’]

traia n. unit of currency, equal to 100 kupuk

trajo n. (literary) top, apex, summit, crown, crest (esp. of buildings, mountains) [V. dorajou]

tramulo n. blood • tramuloto v-0. bleed [tra mulol]

trapa n. booger [V. trapa]

trege v-do. roast [V. tregi]

trije 1. a. quaint, rustic, unimposing; 2. v-io. scam, dupe, swindle, con, trick

tro post. at all sides of, surrounding • trola post. on all sides of, covering • trolto n. all sides, surroundings • troltolio n. shelter, cover • tromzo post. somewhere surrounding [V. dro]

trojo treje v-eo. have had it up to here

troru n. hook

tsa 1. n. wheel; 2. n. cycle [V. tsa ‘wheel’]

tsalia n. sap [V. tsalya]

tsara v-io. act together with [V. tsara]

tsawa 1. a. particular, in particular, certain, specific; 2. a. neat, orderly [V. tsawa]

tse i. so?, so what? [V. tsi]

tsege n. camel

tselhe n. interjection (grammatical)

tseny 1. c. similar to how, somewhat like how (weaker than melre); 2. post. similar to, somewhat like; 3. c. and in the end [V. tsenà]

tseny sho c. for example, for

tsesinshy n. ladder [P. tésinsh]

tsezy n. bark (tree)

tsha v-do. tear, rip • tshaho n. tear, rip [V. tşa]

tshammo n. scandal

tshele n. letter (of alphabet) • tshelejjy n. alphabet [V. tşile]

tshente n. food • tshentefe v-do. (flowery) dine, eat • tshenterme n. cuisine • tshentere v-io,po. (ho) feed (IO: recipient; PO: food) • tshenteshiy v-io,po. (ho) be fed by (IO: giver; PO: food) • tshentekselie n. nutrient, vitamin [V. tşente]

tshimele n. bread [V. tşàmile]

tshity n. stick • tshitymme 1. n. branch; 2. n. cane, staff, walking stick • tshitimmelty n. tree trunk • tshitishky n. twig [V. tsàtu]

tshulha n. mess

tshulssu a. dumb

tshunto n. bone • tshuntosio n. socket [V. tşùnto]

tsiwy a. random, anonymous, stray • tsiwype a. messy, in disarray [V. tsàwà]

tsta n. crack [V. thsa ‘wound, injury’]

tstakhu n. road [V. thsakhù]

tstengy a., n. zero

tstepy n. conjunction

tstire n. philosophy

tsto n. loneliness • tstopso a. lonely [V. thso]

tstoha v-do. deceive, fool, trick, beguile [V. thsouha]

tstopia v-0. smirk [V. thsopya]

tstufra n. filth • tstufrapso a. filthy

tsupo a. rude, offensive (S: people) • tsupolio a. rude, offensive, obscene, vulgar (S: things) [V. tsùpou ‘poisonous’]

tu post. at the bottom of • tula post. on the bottom of • tulto n. bottom, underside • tumzu post. below, beneath, under, underneath

tumma n. beak [V. tùmba]

tumna 1. c. and ... even, moreover, and what’s more, so much that: wasta-lesh ilhysht tumna uvast hrelesh ‘it was a terrible meal; he even threw up afterwards’; 2. c. but (in cases of major contrast); 3. c. but ... too much (usually used with mele (v.)): kereft khagma velenent tumna melent velentef ‘I wanted you to add salt but you added too much’ [V. tùmna]

tunaza 1. n. lust; 2. n. devotion, fervor, devoutness

tungu n. medallion

tunva v-do. stomp on

turko n. heart (organ)

turu n. tooth (esp. of person) • turugo v-io. bite • turusio n. gums [V. tùrù]

turuhno n. plaque [turu tes hno]

tuska v-io. trust

tutsta n. hiddenness • tutstapso a. hidden • tutstaro v-do. hide [V. tùthsa]


ufto a. pale [V. ùphtou]

ufu n. ant

ugana n. tonsil

ugatkho n. hem

ugjo n. need • ugjoho a. necessary • ugjohogla a. crucial, decisive, deciding • ugjopso v-io. need

uhllo n. disaster [V. ùthlou]

uhna 1. a. different; 2. a. foreign; n. foreigner • uhnaka n. difference

ujo n. turn, stage, step (in a sequence) [V. ùjo ‘task’]

ukhmarno v-do,io. go on a tirade, rant, rail against (DO: topic; IO: addressee)

ukso n. essence, inner nature, point (of a statement) • uksoka n. attribute, property

ukuta v. grieve, mourn

ula n. group [V. ùla]

ulhura v-do. smoke [V. ùzlù ‘breath’]

uljo a. varying, inconstant; v-0. vary [V. ùljo]

uloma v-do. wash, clean (DO: object, not person) [V. ùloma]

uma 1. n. rash; 2. n. birthmark; 3. brown, rotting area on food; 4. n. troublemaker, mischief-maker, rascal, imp; 5. n. black sheep [V. ùmğa]

umapo a. temporary [V. ùmapo]

umnala n. bell; v-0. ring [V. ùmnala]

umshaja n. hat

unako v-do. injure, wound, hurt, harm • unakoswo 1. a. dangerous (S: person); 2. a. armed

unha n. muscle, flesh [V. ùnha]

unlo v-sv. continue, keep (repeating something multiple times) • unlosto v-do. continue, keep up [V. ùnlo]

unpu v-0. flicker, twinkle, glimmer

unsago a. funny, humorous

untsa v-do. sell [P. unt]

upa 1. v-0. arrive early, be early; 2. v-io. intercept, waylay [V. ùpà]

upo n. ridge, rim [V. ùpo]

upra v-do. shoot (arrow), throw (stone), launch (cannonball) • upraho n. thing shot, ammunition, arrow • uprapllo n. thing shot at, target • uprallwo n. person shot [V. ùpra ‘hit’]

upu1 n. dance • uputo v-po. (ho) dance [V. ùpù]

upu2 n. echo [V. ùpù ‘dance’]

upustsa n. piece of jewelry

uru n. sand • urugva n. desert • urummo n. dune

urwa v-io. apologize

ushu1 a. lazy [V. ùşù]]

ushu2 v-io. bail on, abandon [inv. ishy (sense 2)]

uso 1. a. taut, tense, strung tight; 2. v-io,vs. depend on, rely on; 3. v-do,vc. assume, presume

ustso a. frail [V. ùsthù]

usumu v-do. haunt • usumuho a. haunted [V. ùsùmo]

uta n. tool, method [V. ùta]

uva v-do. vomit, throw up • uvaho n. vomit [V. ùba]

uvashonzo n. volcano [uva shenzel]

uvruru v-do. separate: irge khilje-vy zaiashkotof uvruruft ‘I separated the man and woman who were fighting’

uzma n. quality (level of goodness or badness) [V. ùzma]

uzwu a. blind (esp. due to old age)


va1 1. n. elbow; 2. n. corner, bend; 3. n. object with a bend in it

va2 n. curse • vafa v-po. (ho) curse (PO: curse) [V. ba1]

vagna n. glory • vagnapso n. glorious • vagnaro v-io. glorify, extol, praise, rhapsodize on [V. bagna]

vagula n. sloped or pointed roof [va1 gulal]

vajja a. red [V. badja]

vajo n. brown hair • vajopso a. brown-haired [valio iejel]

valakha v-0. dance

valaro n. finger [V. blaro]

valio n. wood • valiofo 1. v-0. make something out of wood; 2. v-po. (ho) carve on [V. balyo]

valoga n. agitation • valogapso a. agitated • valogaro v-io. agitate, bother [V. balga]

vamga n. silk [V. bamga]

vammo n. city [trunc. vatojjammo]

vanpo n. sailor [trunc. vantofopo]

vanto 1. n. ship, boat; 2. v-0. float (in water) • vantofo v-po. (ho) sail • vantonta n. harbor, port • vantoshka n. rowboat, canoe, small boat [V. banto ‘tree trunk’]

vara1 a. obvious, clear [V. bara1]

vara2 v-do. spit, spit out; varaso ~ (colloquial) talk rubbish [V. bara2]

vara3 n. wolf [V. barğa]

varalo n. dirtiness • varalopso a. dirty • varaloro v-io. dirty [V. bralou]

varaso 1. n. dirt; 2. n. crumb [V. bratho]

vasho1 1. v-0. come; ~ geve kla gather together, gather round, assemble, commune; 2. v-do. follow (something moving); 2. v-sv. think it probable, likely that

vasho2 n. vulture

vato 1. n. house; 2. n. country • vatommo n. mansion • vatommolta n. palace • vatojja n. village, town • vatojjammo n. city [V. batou]

vatso n. family

vava 1. n. (formal; literary) tree; 2. n. large tree • vavahio n. bark (tree) • vavarmommo n. forest [red. va < V. ba2]

vazolo n. mortar (building material) [V. bazolo]

vegely n. metal

vele1 1. v-do. move (something other than one’s own body); 2. v-do. get out of the way; 3. v-do. scatter, disperse, strew, sprinkle (objects); 4. v-do. add, put in (to food) • velegle n. replacement; v-do. replace (be a replacement for) • veleglere v-io,po. (ho) replace with (IO: original; PO: replacement) [V. ble ‘move’]

vele2 n. snout [V. beli]

vele3 n. butterfly [V. bile]

velere n. wool [V. belri]

velete 1. n. always, forever; 2. n. system, arrangement, explanation, how something works • veletepe a. eternal, immortal [V. blete]

velhe n. surface [V. belzi]

veliy n. seaweed [V. belyà]

veme 1. n. proximity; 2. post. close to, near

vengy post. in front of • vengily post. on the front of • vengimzy post. somewhere to the front of

vereshe n. beginning [V. breşe]

very n. transparency (quality) • veripse a. clear, transparent

vese n. hug, embrace • vesete v-0. hug, embrace: ehllik veseteshket ‘the siblings embraced’ [V. bise]

veze1 n. cheese [V. bezği]

veze2 n. uniqueness • vezepse a. unique [V. beze]

vikhy n. corner [V. bukhà ‘end’]

vilegy n. calmness • vilegypse a. calm • vilegyre v-io. calm [inv. valoga]

vilishky n. sometimes [V. blişku]

vinne 1. v-0. jump; 2. v-0. (colloquial) boil • vinneshky 1. v-0. hop; 2. v-0. tingle; 3. v-0. take it easy, proceed slowly [V. binde]

vinve n. glass (material)

vire 1. n. lip; 2. n. doorpost [V. bàre]

viryle n. cleanliness • virylepse a. clean • virylere v-io. clean [inv. varalo]

virze n. gem, jewel [V. vàrzi]

vive n. kitchen

voja to the other side of, across, through; 2. post. throughout, over [V. boja]

volo n. caterpillar

vomo1 1. n. distance (length between two places); 2. post. far from • vomogva n. refuge

vomo2 a. open • vomosto v-do. open

vona a. long (time) • vonakso n. length of time [V. boda]

vonga post. right behind • vongala post. on the back of • vongamza post. somewhere behind

vorosho1 n. end; ~ gly at last, eventually, finally [inv. vereshe]

vorosho2 n. doll [V. broşo ‘child’]

vosa v-do. give trouble, create problems for, give a hard time (S: people): ponsak ehile vosashkot ‘the authorities gave the traveler a hard time’

vovo veve v-eo. buzz

vozosa n. chaos, pandemonium • vozosapso a. chaotic [V. bozo]

vukso n. change (money)

vulu v-do. destroy • vuluglo v-do. annihilate, raze • vulushho n. wreckage, destruction, ruins, remains, remnants

vurulasfo n. Vouroudra language [V. vroudra]

vusho n. occasion, time [V. bùşo]

vuvo n. bug [V. bùbo]

vuwla n. scab [V. bùwola]

vy1 1. c. and, but (where there is no contrast or minor contrast, though not where there is a contradiction, be it real or perceived): liryf vy gele-lash stsofnaf ‘I am hungry and thirsty’, kantsovo emnif vy jomopsosush ‘I like mangoes but she hates them’; 2. c. or (both clauses offered as options): kerem kamonom vy khommanom? ‘do you want to eat or drink?’ [trunc. vily < vly < V. blu]

vy2 1. post. in, inside, within; 2. post. among, of, out of (a group); 3. post. in the middle part of, excluding edges, or beginning and endpoint: nofto vish ‘in the middle of the night, during the night (not towards beginning or end)’ • vilte n. inside, interior • viltelye n. feeling, instinct, conviction • vily post. on the inside surface of • vimzy post. somewhere inside [V. ‘in’]

vy farala c. but, though, while (indicates minor contrast; both parts occur at the same time, whether they are ongoing or instantive)

vy kho c. but, though, while (indicates minor contrast; the second part happened while the first was going on, or at a different time)

vyie v-0. frown


wa1 c. or (exclusive) [V. wa]

wa2 v-do. avoid (person, object) [inv. wy]

wa tumna c-sv. or else, lest (second clause must be in subjunctive): ife murazaft wa tumna lele ishynes vato klall ‘I closed the window lest rain fall into the house’

waja v-do. suck on [V. waja]

waju n. bamboo

wakhu n. shin [V. wakhù]

waluwura n. adder

wamna 1. n. stranger; 2. n. intruder, trespasser, interloper [V. wamna]

warga n. sandbar

warzu v-do. chew • warzulho n. chewed food • warzumna n. tooth (esp. of animal) • warzumnashka n. baby tooth

waso v-do. use, employ [V. waso ‘try’]

wasta a. terrible, horrible, awful

wato n. room (in a building)

watrohllo n. keyhole

watromo n. key (for lock)

wavra n. peach [V. wabra]

we1 1. a., n. this, that (used to show contrast); 2. a., n. this!, that! (used to single something out as very significant; usually negative) [V. wepi]

we2 c-sv. in order (to, that...); post. for (the purpose of...) [V. wi]

we3 n. star • wegly n. sun • werme n. constellation [V. we]

we4 n. sheath, knife case [inv. we ‘sword’]

wehy a. correct, right [V. wehu ‘intelligent’]

weiyhpe a. tasty, delicious

wekite v-0. snap (with fingers)

welie n. soul, spirit • weliezwe a. spiritual

weliy 1. v-do. hold, carry; 2. v-do. raise (DO: child); 3. v-do. keep in check, control; 4. v-io. lean on, rest on, lean against • weliynshe v-do,io. throw [V. welyà ‘keep’]

weme n. voice • wemefe 1. v-0. cough; 2. v-0. clear throat [V. wime]

wenhe v-do. stop up, plug, seal

wentry1 v-do. catch (something thrown), take (something handed to one) [V. wintru < inv. wountrù ‘throw’]

wentry2 v-cv. do right, get right (an activity) [inv. wontru]

wevy n. ocean [V. wevà]

winje a. upside-down, turned over • winjeste v-do. flip upside-down, turn over

wipe v-0. have bad eyesight [V. wàpe]

wirshy a. deaf

wirze n. time (of day) [V. wàrzi]

wissy v-sv. emphasize, highlight, draw attention to

wizy n. myth

wo n. sword • woksho n. shield [V. wo]

woha a. incorrect, wrong (S: things) • wohalio n. mistake, accident, error • wohapso a. mistaken, in error, wrong (S: people) • wohasro v-sv. make a mistake, make an error, err (in, with regard to) [inv. wehy]

wola n. spoon [V. wola]

wolha n. coil, spiral

wolhopo n. hide, animal skin [P. wōdhep]

wolia v-do. let go of [inv. weliy]

wontru 1. v-sv. mess up, screw up; 2. v-do,io.: ravlo ~ (literary) attack, make battle, fall upon [V. wountrù ‘throw’]

wosu n. spear [V. wosù]

wula n. wave [V. wùla]

wullu v-0. hover

wunra v-do. include, contain [V. wùnra]

wupu n. shadow

wurwuro n. mold, fungus

wuto1 n. mask [V. wùto]

wuto2 n. swamp, marsh [V. wùtou]

wutra n. door

wy1 v-do. look for, search for, seek [V. ]

wy2 n. blotch


y1 a., n. female • izwe a. feminine, womanly [V. à]

y2 cl. indicates subject of a verb [V. i]

yietsy n. (negative) appearance, showing up • yietsyte v-0. (negative) make an appearance, show up


za post. at the right side of • zala post. on the right side of • zalto n. right side • zamza post. somewhere to the right of

zafna a. playful, frisky, mirthful

zaha n. field, plain [V. zaha ‘empty’]

zahara n. lion [zahala aral ‘field beast’]

zaia v-0. fight • zaiashka v-cv. argue over, dispute (whether) [V. zaya]

zaju v-do. hypnotize

zakho n. loudness • zakhopso a. loud [V. zakho ‘loudness’]

zala1 1. a. thick (consistency, density); 2. a. intense, vehement, strong, bold [V. zala]

zala2 n. confusion • zalaro v-io. confuse; mafamna-lak ~ cross eyes • zalashho 1. a. confused; 2. v-sv. be at a loss, be unsure, not know (how to proceed)

zama n. carrot

zaro a. old • zarokso n. age • zarollo v-0. age, grow older [V. zaro]

zaropo n. Pasgemanh person • zarosfo n. Pasgemanh language [zaro ‘old’, referring to the people’s earlier presence on Eloshta]

zava 1. v-do. scratch (an itch); 2. v-do. tickle • zavashho n. itch, scratch [V. zaba]

ze1 n. value, worth [V. ze1 ‘power’]

ze2 post. at the left side of • zelte n. left side • zely post. on the left side of • zemze post. somewhere to the left of [V. ze2 ‘to the side of’]

zefe v-0. celebrate, rejoice [V. ziphe]

zegne 1. n. ground, earth, soil, land; 2. n. background, backdrop, setting (physical) [V. zegne]

zejy n. popularity • zejipse a. popular [V. zeju]

zeljjy n. sour orange

zelle n. village [V. zesli]

zemhe 1. n. amount of weight, heaviness; 2. n. alcohol content • zemhelie n. disciplinary slap, hit, blow, spanking [V. zimhe]

zemshy v-do. dig [V. zemşà]

zengeny a. drunk, inebriated, intoxicated

zente 1. v-0. swagger, sway; 2. v-po. (directional post.) jump back and forth (between locations)

zenzy zenzy v-eo. buzz

zerky 1. v-do. be friends with; 2. v-sv. for a long time; 3. v-sv. conscientiously, seriously, earnestly • zerkille v-do. befriend

zeryie n. wish, longing • zeryiepse v-sv. wish, long for

zeryiy a. numb • zeryiyste v-do. numb

zerzy n. sweat • zerzite v-0. sweat

zeshe v-0. overflow, spill, flood • zesheste v-do. cause to overflow, spill

zeshky n. story • zeshkire n. storyteller • zeshkirme n. folklore, national oral or written literature [V. zeşkà]

zeze1 1. a. fast, quick; 2. io,sv. one after another, in a row; 3. v-sv. hasten, hurry, quickly • zezegly 1. v-do. startle; 2. v-do. gobble up, wolf down; 3. v-sv. suddenly [V. zeze]

zeze2 n. 1. gate; 2. beginning [V. zizi ‘gate’]

zijehre n. green saffron [V. zàjihre]

zijy v-io,cv. criticize for, complain about [inv. zuja]

zikhe n. quietness • zikhepse a. quiet [inv. zakho]

zily 1. a. thin (consistency, density), weak (intensity); 2. a. concise, to the point • zililye n. fib, white lie [V. zàlà]

zime post. far below, far beneath

zirne a. manipulable, gullible, wishy-washy, fickle, inconstant [inv. zurna]

ziwe 1. n. pocket, pouch; 2. n. secret, hidden side; 3. n. small cave [V. zàwe]

zola n. pomegranate [V. zola]

zomhotsta n. rectangle

zomma n. toenail [V. zoumba]

zosha n. ember [V. zoşa]

zosho v-0. remain within one’s limits (S: people, animals, objects) • zoshosto v-do. confine, fence off [inv. zeshe]

zoshu v-do. ruin

zowhu a. very frustrated due to waiting

zoza n. hips, waist [V. zoza]

zozo a. slow [V. zozo]

zu1 n. candle • zufo v-po. (ho) light [V. 1]

zu2 post. at the right or left side of • zula post. on the right or left side of • zulto n. right or left side • zumzu post. somewhere to the right or left of [V. 2]

zufa v-io. defy, resist

zuja v-io,cv. compliment on

zuniu 1. v-0. snore; 2. v-sv. be engrossed in

zupsha v-0. hold still, remain in place, be steadfast

zupshaga n. bolt, bar (lock)

zura n. matter (scientific) [V. zùra]

zurna 1. a. mighty, powerful, great; 2. a. fixed, close-minded, stubborn

zwenie n. (positive) relation, relationship, bond, connection, association [V. şwenye]

zwonio n. (negative) relation, relationship, bond, connection, association [V. şwonyo]