Josh Regev

Khafos-English Dictionary

Introduction   a   e   f   g   h   i   j   k   l   m   n   o   p   r   s   t   u   v   w   y   z


This is a dictionary of Khafos, a constructed language.

Which words are listed and which are not?

In Khafos, the major part of the lexicon consists of roots that are not specified as nouns, adjectives, or verbs, but can be used as any of the three as needed. Since this dictionary is intended for English speakers, different Khafos part-of-speech realizations have been included or omitted here mainly on the basis of how basic, common, and/or lexically distinct their English translations are.

For example, gahhtag is represented here as a noun meaning ‘lemon,’ though it could also have been presented as a verb meaning ‘be a lemon’ or as an adjective meaning ‘which is a lemon.’ But since the first translation is in English the most basic, and the other two are wholly predictable, I’ve only recorded the first. Where the same English word can be used for multiple parts of speech, they are indicated together, as for kigne, marked a., n. and translated by the single word ‘favorite’. On the other hand, for a word such as ora, the nomimal translation ‘thief’ and the verbal translation ‘steal’ are both distinct words in English, so I have listed them both.

Any verb that takes a complement (e.g., direct object, indirect object, etc.) has been listed, so that its complement type(s) may be specified. This is necessary because verbal complements are not always predictable. If a verbal form is not shown, then, it does not mean that it does not exist; only that its meaning is predictable and it does not take any complement.


The dictionary is organized partly alphabetically and partly etymologically. Khafos headwords are arranged in alphabetical order. Words that are derived regularly from the same morpheme (even if the meanings have diverged) are grouped with the same headword, separated by bullets (•).

A number of idiomatic phrases and collocations are listed. For consistency, combinations of verb and object (be it direct, indirect, or postpositional) are always listed with the verb; those of nouns and postpositions with the noun. In these entries, a tilde (~) stands for the head word.

Grammatical specifications

Parts of speech are indicated in italics for each Khafos entry. The following abbreviations are used:

a adjective
c conjunction
cl clitic
i interjection
n noun
part particle
post postposition
v verb

Verbs are further specified for what complement(s) they take (if any). The abbreviations listed below are used to indicate complement type (or lack thereof), and are placed in each verbal entry following the part of speech marker (v-). When a verb takes multiple complements simultaneously, they are separated by a comma. Several conjunctions must be followed by a clause with a subjunctive verb; these are marked as well, in the same way.

0 no object
cv subordinate clause with conjunctive verb
do direct object
eo echo object
io indirect object
po postpositional object (the specific postposition or type of postposition used is indicated in parentheses after)
sv subordinative clause with subjunctive verb

Some verbs have distinct meanings in voices other than the active. This is indicated following the part of speech and complement indications, with one of the following abbreviations:

cir circumstantial
psv passive

Finally, some verbs and nouns have distinct meanings or translations in particular tenses, and these are shown with one of the following abbreviations (conjunctions and interjections featuring tense marking are also indicated this way; although the tense marking is no longer inflectional, the word as a whole can be said to be zero-derived from the corresponding noun):

fut future
pres present
pst past

Often a word, or a specific sense of a word, is used only in a certain context (or register). This is indicated an entry in parentheses, directly following the part of speech label. The following registers are noted: archaic, literary, flowery, formal, euphemistic, colloquial, slang. If a word (or sense of a word) may be used in more than one of these contexts, the appropriate labels are separated by a semicolon; if it is used only when multiple contexts coincide, they are separated by a comma. For example, vava ‘tree’ (formal; literary) is used both in formal speech, and in any kind of writing. geshesie ‘neck’ (literary, flowery) is used only when writing in a poetic or flowery style.

Other clarifications

There is sometimes a mismatch between the part of speech of a Khafos entry and that of its English translation. This is intentional; it is due to the fact that the same ideas are sometimes expressed with different types of words in the two languages. In particular, some Khafos verbs that take sentential complements, and some postpositional phrases, are best translated by an English adverb, which class Khafos completely lacks. For example, the second sense of the verb emny (which takes a complement clause with a subjunctive verb) is translated here by the adverb ‘well,’ as that would be the normal way to say the same thing in English.

Extra clarification regarding meaning or usage is often given in parentheses at the end of a definition. Sometimes there are two words for the same concept, one (with front vowels e, i) used when the speaker has a positive attitude towards it and another (with back vowels a, o, u) when there is a negative attitude. The labels "positive" and "negative" are used where appropriate to indicate this distinction. For some entries, S (subject), DO (direct object), or IO (indirect object) is used to indicate the type of noun that is used in a certain position, or to clarify which nouns go into which positions. I use S here to indicate both the subject of a verb, and a noun modified by an adjective.

In entries where the verb is specified to be in the passive or circumstantial voice, the definition describes the action/state of the noun that is the subject in that voice, not in the underlying active structure. For example, the verb nohhpa, when used in the circumstantial voice, has the meaning ‘be jealous.’ The one who is jealous is the subject of the clause with the circumstantial verb, even though in the underlying active structure, it is an indirect object.

Example sentences are sometimes given, following a definition.


Etymologies are given in square brackets. If a source word is given with no language specified, it is from an older form of Khafos. For other languages, the following abbreviations are used:

H Hoxan
P Pasgemanh

The following additional abbreviations are used in the etymologies:

arch archaic
bf back formation from
conf confusion of
inf influenced by
inv inversion of (the vowels were switched either from front to back, or back to front, to derive a word with the opposite meaning)
lb learned borrowing from
red reduplication of
trunc truncation of
var variant form of


asnor a. full (satiated with food); v-do. eat one's fill of, eat to satsifaction • asnoglar a. over-full (of food) • asnurg v-do. feed adequately, to satisfaction • asnoglurg v-do. stuff with food

afotra n. outrigger (to stabilize boat)

agag n. (pl. auk) melody

agaz 1. n. yawn; 2. n. gulp, slug, mouthful, draught

agazut 1. v-0. yawn; 2. v-sv. act slowly, lazily; 3. v-io. ignore someone [agaz + ut]

agluig v-do. display, show

agou n. canoe

ahnot n. hovel, shanty

ajjakiat2 1. a. thick (consistency), dense, viscous; 2. a. knotty, thorny, nuanced, not simple, complex, complicated (S: situation, idea)

alhe 1. v-0. turn; 2. v-0. be startled; 3. v-0. nod, shake head • alhevui n. turn (direction) • alhesot 1. v-do. turn; 2. v-do,io. present, transfer, give (something from a third party)

alhol n. drug, intoxicant [P. àdhlûm ‘plant’]

allas v-cv. claim, state

alhlon n. idiocy, stupidity • alhloups a. idiotic, stupid; n. idiot

alor a. frozen • alors v-0. freeze • aluiz v-do. freeze

aluj 1. a. crooked, slanted; 2. a. giddy, jumpy, merry

alup v-0. run (nose); a. runny: irge punzal alpush ‘the man’s nose is runny’

alur n. sheep

amhhuil n. horse

ammot v-0. meditate

amp v-0. burp

amvov n. (literary) consequence, ramification

anaosh v-0. gasp for air • anaoshnur v-do. 1. strangle; 2. squeeze hard, compress

angag n. lute

anho a. wide • anhokos n. width

anlush n. beauty • anlushops a. beautiful, fine

annot 1. n. gray; 2. n. distant, far-off

anug n. condensation • anugur v-0. condense

aplut n. obstacle, block, blockage • aplutug n. fence, protective wall, barricade

aralaol n. crud, smut, filth, muck

araov n. clay

arar n. beast, large animal

arult n. husk

ash v-0. fly • asharg 1. v-do. launch, propel (projectile); 2. v-do. cause to work hard; 3. v-do. flatter

ammosh v-0. explode, blow up, erupt, splatter [ash + -mmO-]

askut 1. n. joint (between bones); 2. n. pause, break (in conversation, activity)

asos n. fort

at n. flint

avalal n. snail (c. avaliol, pl. avaliak)

avoz 1. v-0. work, labor; 2. v-do. work on, labor on; 3. v-io. help, be of use to; 4. v-sv. do, perform, be used for, be for (type of task): skek wostulh avoshk nisher iolohhagonshok ‘these spears are for fishing’ • avozoho n. work, labor, job, task • avozoks 1. n. standard, norm; 2. n. procedure, technique, method, strategy • avupou n. worker, laborer • avozunt n. workplace

awa2 a., n. male • azow a. masculine, manly

awhllap n. seashell

awhhuniat n. moon; ~ hrol until nightfall, all day

aza i. hey! (to get someone’s attention)

azaon post. behind (when hiding or being hidden)

azoz v-do. love (family)

salut n. farm • alutpou n. farmer


eheleps v-0. have a stomach ache [ehel1 + -Ops]

ef a. ancient

efef n. remains, ruins, remnant

efep 1. a., n. one (non-humans); 2. a., n. first

eflir a. 1. shallow; 2. small amount (liquid): eflir izgelin ‘a little tea’

efy v-sv. promise, swear (one’s intention, not a fact)

eg a. good • evui n. goodness • egleg 1. a., n. (positive) enough, sufficient, appropriate, right; v-io. suffice for, satisfy, be appropriate for, be right for, suit; 2. v-io. cir. get by, manage; 3. v-io. cir. (euphemistic) pass away, expire, die • eglym a. wonderful, great, terrific • egir n. good sign, good omen; a. auspicious

eggep n. pet

eginez n. music

egiz n.: ~ we for what?, to what end?, why?; ~ sho because of what?, why?

ehel1 v-0. grumble, groan • ehelieg 1. n. belly, stomach

ehel2 n. river • eheltiv n. stream

ehiet n. milk • ehiemny n. udder, nipple • ehiutir v-io. nurse (S: mother) • ehietrit v-0. suckle, nurse (S: baby)

ehil v-0. travel

ehipliz v-io. trade with

ehlly n. sibling • ehllipou n. a new sibling, i.e., someone made a sibling after previously having been an only child

ehhpy 1. v-0. develop (S: sitting food or drink, or the flavor thereof), age (S: wine); 2. v-sv. turn out, end up

ejej n. mellowness, detachment • ejeps a. mellow, detached

ekselh 1. v-sv. arrange, plan (event); 2. authorize, sanction, approve; 3. v-do. tame, domesticate

eksy 1. v-sv. let, allow, permit, consent to; 2. v-0. expand, grow; 3. v-0. hatch (S: eggs)

elep 1. n. effect, power, force; 2. n. breeze; 3. v-do. affect, move (emotionally); 4. v-do. boss around, push around; 5. v-do. change musical mode of; 6. v-0. (euphemistic) relieve oneself, go to the bathroom

elgen a., n. some (amount)

elhit n. fun • elhiteps v-0. have fun

eliftet 1. a. too bad, a shame; 2. a. eccentric, crazy

elihhy a. uncommon, rare, scarce

elly c. so

elmy n. (pl. elmek) flower • elmeg n. vase • elmint n. garden • elmeshfin n. spring (season) • elmesmy 1. n. bud; 2. n. fetus, premature baby

eluir n. whisper

emels 1. n. comfort, contentedness; 2. n. honor, credit, grace

emhhij n. sweet orange

emell v-io. praise, compliment, encourage, speak well of

emny 1. v-do. like, be fond of; 2. v-sv. well; 3. v-sv. well enough, adequately, sufficiently • emnigleg v-do. love, have a passion for (esp. more abstract concepts and entities, activities, rather than specific objects)

emmy a. nice, lovely, pleasant

engoz n. pressure (physical)

eniw v-do. weave, braid

entry 1. n. land, country, area (geographic or political entities); 2. n. scope, extent, compass, breadth

enty v-io,sv. ask for, request • entihe n. request • entigleg v-io,sv. 1. plead, beg; 2. make a large request; a. desperate • entiglegehe n. plea • entishap v-sv. ask meekly, hint, intimate (a request)

epik n. few

eplell a. minty

eremrety v-io. cir. be infatuated, obsessed with: eremretigesht tsent ‘He was obsessed with food’

eshegy v-0. stick out, stick up, poke out

eshhels v-0. leap [inv. oshhols]

eshiurg n. arrow

eshkel n. happiness, joy, delight • eshkeleps 1. a. happy, joyful, delighted; v-io. be happy about, be happy with; 2. v-io. be interested in, care about • eshkelir v-io. make happy, delight

esihizry n. mosquito

esikry n. stance, position (physical)

esippy n. seaweed species [P. esap]

eskii 1. v-do. recognize; 2. v-do. be acquainted with • eskishap 1. v-do. think to look familiar; 2. v-do. know a little (DO: language, skill)

esper n. fabric

etly v-0. be joking, be kidding

ev i. pardon, excuse me

evet n. truth (general concept) • eveteps a. true • eveskis n. fact, truth (specific) • evetir v-io. confirm, validate, uphold

evint n. stone, rock

ewes n. parent

ezgy 1. v-0. (re)direct one’s attention, focus (change of state); 2. v-io. find (after a search); 3. v-io. scout out, reconnoiter, survey; 4. v-cv. rethink; 5. v-cv. redo; 6. v-sv. think of, come up with (idea for plan of action)

ezuiz n. pearl

ezy n. string (of musical instrument)

enfy a. very fat, obese

eprel v-do. move (own body part)


fuhh n. air • fuhhof v-po. (ho) breathe, blow (air from one’s mouth), bubble • fuhhaman n. lungs • fuhhuvunt n. breath, bubble

finehy a. ordinary, normal, regular, usual, routine, standard [inv. fanoha]

fanoha 1. a. opposite; 2. a. extraordinary, stand-out • fanohaz v-do. skip, leave out, pass by

fa i. that’s the way it is, just because, no reason • faskat n. excuse • faskut v-cv. make an excuse

falhlaf 1. n. solid, a. solid; 2. pulp (in juice) • falhlafur 1. v-io. extract, empty, juice, remove solid/liquid from (where that is the desired component); 2. v-io. skin • falhlafurs v-0. solidify • falhlafuiz v-do. solidify

fam n. shoulder • famhhush n. armpit

fanao n. mustache

fanlot v-do. beat, hit

far n. tulip

faraol 1. c. when, while, as; 2. n. time when

faruin v-cv. regret

fary n. lychee [P. fary]

fask 1. v-do. stab, puncture, prick; 2. v-do. insult, taunt • faskug 1. n. puncture; 2. n. insult

fast n. ruler (person); v-do. rule

fawwas n. mirror

feheliz n. mound [inv. foholoz]

fengy n. letter (document)

fenzy n. joke, jest

fery1 n. cheek

fery2 post. at the side (any) of, next to, by, outside • ferilt n. side (any), outside • ferikiel post. on the side (any) of, on the outside of • ferimuz post. outside, somewhere to the side (any) of

fet 1. v-do. (positive) do, use, perform, conduct; 2. v-do. (positive) act upon • fevui n. (positive) action, act

fevuitlieg n. adverb [fevuit + -lieg]

fevuit n. verb

fewir v-do. tend to, care for, look after, maintain

fewsy n. monarch, king, queen

fezezy 1. a. impatient; 2. v-sv. rush into; 3. v-sv. dare, venture [inv. fozozy]

fienit 1. v-sv. encourage; 2. v-io. alert

fihmep v-do. invade

fijer a. fancy, opulent, luxurious, extravangant

filhent n. well

finjet n. shovel

finnet n. toy, game • finnetef v-po. (ho) play (with...)

fintew n. marriage • finteweps a. married; v-io. be married to • fintewirs v-io. marry

fion v-sv. discourage • fionoshhou a. discouraged, hopeless, forlorn

fiumas n. area under eye

fle fly v-eo. make polite coughing sound

fleliz n. plowshare

flerim n. morning

flery n. skin

flesty a. beautiful, gorgeous

flimerii n. turtle shell

flohha flehhy v-eo. splash, sprinkle

flopo flepy v-eo. be repetitive

flor c. (literary; formal) and (used between vocatives): fewsi-my flor itep-shik ‘king and servants!’

flowo flewe v-eo,cv. dreamily

flun n. fire

flutroz n. demon

fneshef n. brain

fnez v-0. end, finish • fnezirg v-do,po. (lly) end, finish

foholaz n. crater

fohomo feheme v-eo. make the sound of rolling waves

fol 1. n. body part, limb, organ; 2. n. well-being, health

foluhlut n. cockroach

fommat n. fish scale

fonga v-do. be named, be called (S: places) • fongaoho n. name (of a place)

fonlas n. bird sp. (white, long tail)

fonlo fenle v-eo,cv. under the table, hush hush

fonra n. seaweed species (black, edible)

fonsat 1. v-do. be relevant to, have something to do with, pertain to, relate to; 2. v-po. (directional post.) go, stretch, lie, run (S: river, town, other landscape feature)

fot 1. v-do. (negative) do, use, perform, conduct; 2. v-do. (negative) act upon • fovui n. (negative) action, act

fotsuin n. wagon

fozoza 1. a. patient; 2. v-sv. hold back from, restrain oneself from (temporarily)

fufla fifly v-eo. ruffle, bristle, undulate, ripple

fuhhpow n. joke (story)

fuhhul v-0. sneeze

fuziat v-sv. how?, in what way?

fnennit a. tamarind

flomush v-io. cir. stay up all (S: time period; night implied if unspecified): flomushagoft noftot ‘I stayed up all last night’

fnev v-0. be sitting (state) • fneveg n. seat, place to sit • fnevegleg n. bench, couch • fneviz v-0. sit down (change of state)

fnelh v-0. have a headache


gah n. diamond

gahan a. which?

gahou n. liver

gahhtag n. lemon

gahhum n. larynx

gal 1. a. black; 2. n. pupil (of eye); ~k glily in clear view, obviously, apparent, conspicuous, outright, as one can see

galhlav a. some (uncertain identity), random, anonymous, any, whichever, either, one; n. something, someone, anything, anyone

galul n. carambola, star fruit [P. galîli]

gamiolut n. sugar cane

gamlun n. questioning, interrogation, interview

gammow 1. n. hole, pit, tunnel (in ground); 2. n. trap (general term) • gammowut v-0. dig a hole

gannog n. east

garmo girme v-eo,cv. be pretentious

gash a. tall (S: people)

gashtow n. ready, prepared, supplied • gashtowurs v-0. get ready, prepare • gashtousnok n. autumn • gashtowuiz v-do. get ready, prepare, supply

gast n. outlet, aperture

gazuz n. crime • gazuspou n. criminal; v-po. (ho) commit (a crime) • gazushhou n. victim (of crime)

gef n. animal • gefnet n. menagerie

gehy n. date (fruit)

gilesh n. face

gelev n. cucumber

geliv 1. n. place, spot, location; 2. n. where?; 3.c. where • gelivint n. position, pose

gell 1. n. fruit juice; 2. n. drink, beverage • gelleps a. juicy, moist (S: food) • gileh n. olive

gelwy n. event, happening

gely n. black hair • geleps a. black-haired

gemy n. life

genig a. smug, pretentious

geniheh n. seaweed species

genirv 1. n. wall; 2. n. railing, banister; 3. n. arm (of chair), armrest; 4. n. side, flank (of a person); 5. n. layer (vertical)

gentis v-do. 1. adore, delight in; 2. revere, venerate

ger n. pride • geneps a. proud

gesii 1. v-io. become, turn into; 2. v-0. develop (S: cooking food); 2. v-0. ferment • geskir v-do. beat up, knock around, "soften up"

getesh n. head • gellig n. hat • geteshnir v-do. behead, decapitate

giaot n. fern

gienet n. flower

gig n. who?

gijjy 1. post. just like, exactly like; 2. post. with (accompanied by someone else doing the same thing, but separately): hharasht ife gijjis ‘he hunted with a friend’

gikez v-do. buy, pay for, pay (DO: item, amount of money, bill); n. buyer, customer • gikezint n. store, market

gihh v-0. speak, talk • gihhpou a. talkative, garrulous

gilhly a. particular, certain

ginest a. short (people)

ginlan n. pruning hook

girig n. thing (very general term)

gissik n. (pl. gissek) apple

gitez 1. a., n. seven; 2. a., n. seventh

gla gly v-eo. dart away, be gone in the blink of an eye

glap v-0. grunt

gluin v-do. like, enjoy

glir n. intestines

glul n. flat roof

glunuiz n. viper

gly 1. post. at (place, event), in (environment), with (external condition), for (time period): kiefesht sheiese glis ‘she was reading without any light’; 2. post. along with, to, according to: upufoshkot zozo patsal glis ‘they danced to a slow rhythm’

guz post. on

gow post. with, along with (another participant cooperating): hharasht ife gos ‘he hunted with a friend’

golshow n. bag, purse

golv n. path of destruction

gomaskag 1. a. wild, untamed; 2. v-sv. pretend, make believe, act as if

gono gono v-eo. moan

gonolt n. shame • gonoltops a. ashamed • gonoltur v-io. shame, disgrace

gonsag 1. v-do. hold with the fingers; 2. v-do. keep at a distance (figuratively)

govop gevep v-eo. make bubbling sound

gozgou n. bronze

guf n. story, floor (above ground floor)

guffaf v-0. stretch • guffurg v-do. stretch, extend

guilat n. limit, maximum, breaking point, end

guilops v-io. not be able to stand, not be able to up with, be fed up with, be one's wit's end with

gulgot v-0. hiccup

gunnav v-do. release, secrete, let out, have come out of oneself

gunnut v-io. gather (large things)

guzaz n. decree, edict, declaration

gwesh n. mainland, continent

gumnuh 1. n. spine; 2. n. main road

gwoshah n. island

gwoz n. revenge, vengeance • gwozut v-io. take revenge on

gwozops a. 1. vengeful, resentful; 2. unresolved, unsolved; 2. a. fearsome, dread, terrible


haf n. bag

hagov n. donkey

haham 1. n. what’s-his-name, what’s-it-called; 2. a. blind, free, undirected: haham polol ‘blind anger’

hajjat a. barren, sterile

hal n. reason, cause

hwalum v-po. (directional post.) leave, depart, go • hwalumuif 1. v-do,po. (directional post.) bring, transport, send; 2. v-do. kick out

hamiar n. south

han n. sound, noise • hunaf v-cv. hear • hantaz v-cv. listen to • huglog n. song (vocal or instrumental) • hammon n. noise, uproar • hammopso a. noisy, loud • hanut v-0. make a sound

haol n. ear

haraohy n. ghost

has n. eagle

hashhuish n. snake

haskion n. scythe [H.]

haz n. child, kid, son, daughter (expresses relationship, not age)

hefe hify v-eo. sound breathy

heflijet a. be restless, excited, agitated

hehint n. iron (metal)

hehluit n. bladder

heiyvy a. tangy, piquant

helehy n. tall aquatic bird (such as crane, heron)

helime n. god

hemoug n. vegetable • hemougug n. cooked vegetable

henant 1. n. nostril; 2. n. airhole (in a cave, box)

henill n. port

heniv a. sweet (tasting)

hep n. dirt, soil, earth

heret n. flame • heretig n. candle, torch • hereps a. aflame, cooking, on fire; v-0. cook, burn • heretir n. chef, cook; v-io. 1. burn; 2. cook

hezez n. planet

hezgeg n. heat, warmth • hezgeks n. temperature • hezgeps a. hot • hezgesnek n. summer • hezgir v-io. heat

hezguishops a. warm

hiajov n. castle

hiasmuk n. calculation

hieg n. goat

hiehit n. appearance, exterior, countenance, look, aura, mien

hiliih n. section, division, area, part (from the point of view of function or quality, e.g. section of book, part of town, room in house)

himny n. bravery, courage • himneps a. brave, courageous

hinnit n. silence • hinneps a. silent

hiohut 1. n. covering, peel, shell; 2. n. layer

hiply n. rabbit

hiuront v-io. bend, bow • hiuronvunt n. fold, bend, crease • hiurorg v-do. fold, bend

hiyhh n. sum, total

hlamat v-do. sell • hlamaog n. merchandise, wares

hleheke hlihiky v-eo. make grating, abrasive sound

hlej a. naked • hlejirs 1. v-io. undress oneself, strip • hlejirg v-do. 1. undress, strip; 2. peel, shuck; 3. pit, core

hlelip v-0. collapse, trip, slip, fall down (from ground level) • hlelieps a. fallen, collapsed • hlelishuip a. tilted, off-balance, askew, diagonal • hlelipuiz 1. v-do. knock over, knock down, fell (something already on ground level); 2. v-do. renege on, go back on, break, breach (promise, resolution); 3. v-do. overwhelm

hllanahh n. octopus

hllaz n. hardness, firmness • hllazaz 1. a. hard (physically tough, firm); 2. n. stone, pit (of fruit)

hlleruip n. frog

hlliz n. softness, impressibility, pliability [inv. hllaz] • hlliziz 1. a. soft, yielding, pliable; 2. a. delicate, tender, fragile

hllumal a. brown

hlor 1. v-io. enclose, wrap; 2. v-io. trap (animal, fugitive) • hlorug n. trap

hlosow 1. v-do. expell, exile, banish, cast away; 2. v-do. (slang) remove from premises, kick out, take out

hlowa n. roof

hlu v-0. whisper, murmur • hluho n. whisper, murmur

hluglu hligly v-eo. make vomiting, hurling sound

hly hly v-eo. squeak

hly 1. v-0. rest; 2. v-io. forgive

hmaha n. poison, venom

hmak v-do. walk into (wall, trap)

hmant n. flour

hmehy n. limit, boundary, border, end

hmog n. attack, assault • hmohhpou a. violent, brutal, vicious, savage, ferocious • hmorg v-do. attack

hmu v-0. boil • hmusto v-do. boil

hnagog n. crow

hnell n. scar

hnilhe v-0. grow (S: plants) • hnilhefly v-do. grow, raise (plants) • hnilhenty n. fertile area; a. fertile (S: land)

hno hne v-eo. laugh slyly (‘hehe’)

hno n. garbage, trash, rubbish, waste

hnofa v-do. escape

hnosha a. hostile, antagonistic

hnozat n. stew

hnuiop n. opinion, stance, inclination, view, viewpoint

hnuru post. instead of, for, as

ho 1. post. indicates demoted DO of certain verbs; 2. cl. indicates direct object within noun phrase

hofo hefe v-eo. laugh mockingly or condescendingly

hogla higly 1. v-eo,io,cv. whine; 2. v-eo. whoosh, whistle, wuther, rustle (S: air); 3. v-eo. smell, stink, reek

hoh n. (pl. houiok) country, nation

hohluiat v-0. swing

hohhnunut n. turtle

honha a. gray

hor n. whale

hozgog n. cold • hozgops a. cold • hozgur v-io. cool

hozv 1. a. sour, bitter; 2. a. awkward (S: situations, speech)

hhpo hhpo v-eo. go thud

hrel post. after, upon; v-do. precede, come before [inv. hrol]

hrelpou n. neighbor

hrikeks n. lull, break, letup

hrip 1. a. sudden; 2. v-sv. suddenly

hro hre v-eo. chortle

hrol 1. post. before, preceding, earlier than; v-do. follow, come after; 2. post. in, by (time frame)

hrujaj v-do. raze, flatten

hrurup n. layabout, bum

hugurah n. lava

huhhpo v-do. disguise

huiafant n. coffin

hoiu post. about, concerning, of

huhhan n. fear • huhhammon n. terror • huhhanops a. afraid, frightened; v-io. fear, be afriad of

hunv n. garlic

hur n. where?

huruhh n. burden

huvaog n. statue

huwwaov a. mighty, formidable, awesome, terrible, intimidating

hwassok n. beast

hwelemmeh n. everything

hwelh v-0. return • hwelhuiz v-do. return

hwenihh n. innocence • hwinhheps a. innocent

hwil n. security, safety • hwileps a. secure, safe • hwilel n. guard • hwilit v-io. guard, protect

hwoius n. sin

hwonuhh n. guilt • hwunhhops a. guilty

hwunpur v-do. torture

hhagmu 1. n. dust; 2. n. sediment

hhajmas v-do. hunt • hhajmahhmas n. prey

hhallo n. issue, matter

hhanzaz a. short (height, length, width)

hhap a. any

hharv n. flag

hhasoum n. fingernail, claw

hhaz n. dryness • hhazoz a. dry, dried, dehydrated, dessicated • hhazur v-io. dry, dessicate, dehydrate • hhazurs v-0. dry

hhehlly a. complete

hhej1 v-do. learn (skill, trade, language)

hhej2 v-do. free, release

hhejj2 n. rottenness, decay • hhejjejj a. rotten, decayed • hhejjirs v-0. rot, decay

hhejy v-0. settle • hhejinty n. settlement

hhel a. blue

hhelhly n. symbol; a. symbolic

hhelt n. artery

hhemejit1 v-do. bring (object)

hheminz n. question • hhemir v-io,po. (hoiu) ask

hhemirit1 v-do,io. tap (DO: rhythm or tune; IO: surface tapped)

hher1 a. other, alternate

hher2 n. maze

hheritret v-0. grow up

hhert n. form, shape, style • hhertekes n. layout, format, formulation

hherv n. rationale, reason, logic, sense

hhesifiej1 v-do. acquired skill, knowledge [hhesij + -ifiO-]

hhetinz n. name

hhewzy 1. v-do. pull, drag; 2. v-do. pull off, pluck, pick, twist off (from a bunch); 3. v-do. pull out, extract, pluck; 4. v-do. smudge, smear

hhilj n. lady, woman

hhimzy v-0. lie down (state) • hhimzyste v-do. lay, lay down • hhimzyrse v-0. lie down (change of state)

hhinej n. additional, second, more, further, other

hhinzy a. long, tall • hhinzykse n. length

hhiper v-0. shiver • hhipereps n. cold weather

hhiriery n. egret

hhitstej a. light (color)

hhity2 n. leaf

hhiz n. moisture, wetness, dampness • hhizez a. moist, wet, damp • hhizir v-io. moisten, wet, dampen • hhizirs v-0. become moist, wet, damp

hhizy n. meat

hhlew n. bird

hhlum1 n. fragment, piece, part

hhlum2 n. vanity • hhlumum a. vain

hhmery n. pumpkin

hhmesh n. answer, response, reply • hhmeshir v-io. answer, respond, reply

hhmezny n. flamingo

hhmilh n. circumstance, condition • hhmilhir 1. n. specify, single out; 2. v-do. forbid

hhnef a. white

hhnelh n. wrist

hhneliev n. cat

hhnet n. fringe

hhnetip v-0. twitch

hhnih n. square

hhnim n. lap, bosom, breast

hhnogaov n. sky

hhnunpulajj n. holiness • hhunpulops a. holy

hhogu hhegy v-eo. make retching, puking sound

hhoko hheke v-eo. make scraping sound

hholwuraz n. leader; v-sv. lead

hhomlla n. dome

hhomm1 v-0. howl

hhomm1 1. n. thorn, barb; 2. a. brusque, gruff, rude, rough, biting (in speech or action)

hhomshant n. triangle

hhonna v-do. drink

hhos n. ash

hhosum n. saint

hhot1 c. when, while, as

hhot2 1. a. whole, intact; 2. a. pure, unadulterated

hhowza v-do. push

hhoz n. forehead

hhozaj n. catch, haul, plunder, booty

hhuiuhh n. (flowery) death • hhups a. (flowery) dead • hhushap n. exhaustion, fatigue • hhushaps a. exhausted, fatigued, tired out

hhul n. sky (at night)

hhulmariahh n. blade

hhunmag n. salt • hhunmagag a. salty • hhunmagur 1. v-io. salt; 2. v-io. touch up, refine

hhurv n. baby • hhurvunt n. womb • hhurvops a. pregnant • hhurvopsuvui n. pregnancy • hhushhorv v-do. be bereaved of a child

hhutstohh a. dark

hhutu hhity v-eo. make pitter patter sound (like drizzling rain)

hhuwwuhh n. egg

hhwinev n. bump, lump (on something)


illimvint n. collar [illim + -UvUnt]

iajuz n. bat (animal)

ial n. thigh

ialot n. strength • ialotot a. strong • ialotur v-do. strengthen • ialoturs v-0. strengthen

iap n. taste • iapaf v-do. taste • iaskap n. tongue

iapun n. note (music)

iarovunt n. workplace

iata n. cliff

iatla c. however, but, though, rather, instead (used to present a contradiction or a substitution, but not mere contrast; the more unexpected clause follows): ramlok suhhosahiokol rommoft iatla shur kalogoh ‘I laid out three shirts but now there are (only) two’

iav n. elephant

iaw n. meow • iawut v-0. meow

iaza n. kumquat

iegeh a., n. so much

iehel a., n. too many, too much

iehlly n. olive tree

iej n. hair (collective) • iejeps a. having hair • iynzez a. bald

ielhii a. free, open, at ease

ieltigek n. spider

iely 1. n. time (general concept); n. fut. future; c. fut. later; n. pres. present, now (general period); n. pst. past, history, before, earlier; c. pst. before • ielishky n. moment

iemzigint n. mine

ienty v-do. plant

ierv n. information, knowledge

iervir v-io. 1. inform, notify; 2. warn [ierv + -r]

iervirs v-cv. find out, discover [ierv + -rs]

iervishup n. piece of trivia, factoid, small and inconsequential piece of information [ierv + -shup]

ieshfimmet n. disciple, protegé [ieshrit + -mme-]

ieshfint n. school [ieshfit + -Unt]

ieshfit n. student; v-cv. learn, find out (information) (from someone else)

ietet n. west

ifej 1. n. gap; 2. n. furrow

iflej n. window

ifivui n. help, aid, assistance [ifui + -vui]

ifnour n. page, paper

ift n. flood

ifui 1. n. friend, buddy, pal; 2. n. piece that fits together with another

ify n. lid, flap (covering or closing something)

igeg n. mind, thoughts, mental capability

igerv n. pea

iggev n. talent, skill, special ability (of person or object) • iggevev a. talented, skilled, useful

igleshy n. harp

ihim a. full, filled [inv. uhum]

ihhkehh v-do. free, liberate

ihry n. festival

ijes 1. a. thin (consistency), diluted, watery; 2. a. light (weight)

ijij 1. n. ripple; 2. n. trifle; a. inconsequential, silly, stupid

ijjet 1. v-do. live in, inhabit, be found in, occur in; 2. v-io. prefer, favor, choose (to use, to be around)

ijjet2 a. straight

ijy n. eyelid; ~k simzy impossible to see or catch, out of sight, out of range

ihhin 1. n. shore, bank (of river), side (of street); 2. n. environment, surroundings

ikly n. (c. iklil) powder

ilaosh a. exotic

ilepesh 1. v-0. fall, land (from a height); 2. v-0. show up unexpectedly (S: people); 3. v-0. be overwhelmed • ippeshirg v-do. knock down, knock off, cut down, cut off (from a height)

ilhev n. topic, subject

ilhy1 n. meal

ilhy2 v-0. cringe, wince • ilhyste a. corny, hokey [inv. alha]

illim2 1. n. neck; 2. n. stem;

ilwel n. prayer • ilwelit v-po. (ho) pray

imefes n. poetry • imefe n. poem

imerkik n. cube

imihlel v-0. sulk

imhhek n. (sg. and pl.) white pomegranate

imme 1. n. example, instance, occurrence; 2. n. newborn

immerpent n. art • immerpou n. artist

imneps a. permanent

inehh n. ball • inehheps a. round, curled

ineshig n. daze • ineshigeps a. dazed

inetstet n. bargain

infeks n. etiquette, custom • infeps a. polite

ingizet v-0. evaporate, dry up • ingizitet v-io. reduce, burn off (culinary)

inhep a. narrow, thin • inhepirg 1. v-do. constrict, squeeze; 2. v-io. hold tight, grip; 3. v-do. ensnare, trap, capture, catch

inihh n. intelligence, wisdom, discerning

iniry v-do. stare down

initehh a. intelligent, wise, discerning; v-cv. know in depth, be an expert on (about) [rel. inihh]

inlet 1. v-sv. wonder (if); 2. v-sv. hope (with some doubt)

inmer n. stage (theater)

inmy n. saliva

inniskej n. apparition

intiv n. gold

inwent n. road • inwengiz 1. v-0. go by road; 2. v-0. go directly; 3. v-0. make one’s way, head on, proceed

inwiry n. cart • inwirgiz v-io. transport, cart, move, import, export

inwy v-do. accumulate, amass, stockpile, hoard • inwyshhou v-do. lose (a lot of things, catastrophically): tesh teltek kezekelh inwyshhousht naw shast ‘she lost all her belongings in the tornado’

iogar n. vein

iolhhao 1. v-do. gather, collect, forage for, fish for; 2. v-do. feel around for

iolomo ieleme v-eo. gyrate, undulate

iontur n. stupidity, dullness • ionotrops a. stupid, dull

iotmat 1. n. circle; 2. v-0. spin, rotate; 3. v-io. go around, circle around, revolve around, wind around • iomaturg 1. v-do. spin, rotate; 2. v-do,io. wind around

iotstah a. pale gray, hazy

ioz v-sv. plot, plan, scheme

iozurv v-do. sneer

ipent n. play • ipengiz v-0. act (in a play); n. actor

ipesh v-cv. sense, be aware of, perceive, be able to tell • ipeshuiz v-do,po. (lly) show, cause to experience

ipewwy v-0. arrive late, be late

irek 1. n. pot; 2. n. basin

irge n. man

irir n. purr • iryte v-0. purr

iseg n. path

ishilish n. drizzle

ishin v-do. batter, pound, ram, crash into

iottak n. dried lime

iosuhh (na. posuhh) 1. a. how many, how much?; 2. n. number • iosuhhur v-io. count

ishkez n. nest, hive • ishkezivint v-0. nest

ishkim v-0. lean, slouch, sag

isirv n. damage, harm • isirvirg v-do. damage, harm

iskek1 a. lax, loose [inv. uso]

iskik n. axle

ismerig n. jar

ismerir v-0. glow

ismevui 1. n. theory, hypothesis, idea; 2. n. unifying purpose or rationale, logical consistency, method, balance where everything has its place [ismevit + -vui] • ismevit v-0. match, fit together, be consistent (internally, or among multiple items)

issep a. gentle, tender

iten n. chair, throne

itep n. servant

itfer 1. n. liquid; 2. n. juice squeezed out of something; a. liquid; v-0. flow; • itfegleg v-0. gush • itferit v-do. juice (fruit), tap (tree trunk), extract liquid from (where the liquid is the desired component) • itfers v-0. liquefy, melt • itferuiz v-do. liquefy, melt

itfiz n. problematic situation, difficulty, ordeal, travail • itfiglez n. crisis

itill n. area, place, zone

itrep n. vine

itrim n. medicine • itrimig n. pain reliever

itsit n. spear

ium n. day (24. hours); n. fut. tomorrow; n. pres. today; n. pst. yesterday • iomojja n. calendar

iumak v-sv. also, in addition

iumunt n. jail, prison

iunushat v-do. 1. have cursory knowledge of; 2. know (something small and inconsequential) [iunut + -sha-]

iunut v-cv. know (about, that)

iushmahh v-0. scream

iuskav n. gray hair, white hair • iuskavops a. gray-hair, white-haired

iuv n. gift, present, favor

iuzu post. right behind • iuzula post. on the back of • iuzulto 1. n. back (side); 2. n. just a short while ago; • iuzumzu post. somewhere behind

iuzuiz n. teacher; v-do,io,cv. teach

iven1 n. floor

iven2 n. sulfur

ivesh n. whore

iviv n. world

iwwer n. anxious or eager hope, anticipation • iwwereps v-sv. anxiously or eagerly hope, anticipate

iy n. there

iyfej v-do. swallow

iylet n. weakness • iyleteps a. weak • iyletir v-0. weaken • iyletirs v-io. weaken

iyntrerij v-0. tremble in fear

iysmeg 1. n. device, contraption, apparatus, tool; 2. a. useful, functional

iystsep n. thoroughness; ~ gly exactly, precisely, perfectly • iystseps a. thorough • iystsepit v-sv. do something in order to be thorough

iyzy post. in front of • iyzylte n. front • iyzily post. on the front of • iyzimzy post. somewhere to the front of

izaol 1. n. small cave; 2. n. dent, crevice; 3. n. slit, rip, tear, hole (esp. natural, not made intentionally)

izgen n. 1. tea; 2. any hot drink

iziek n. insect

izmezy n. rib

izret a. muscular, buff

iora 1. a., n. eight; 2. a., n. eighth

ijaov n. plant

inzew a. light-colored, pale

iwwetry 1. v-0. be present; v-po. be (somewhere); v-do. be at, attend; 2. v-io. encounter, face, witness • iwwetrivui n. presence • iwwetrirs v-po. (directional post.) go, come to meet or face something/someone; ~ zengy ken crouch, squat • iwwetruiz 1. v-do,po. (directional post.) put, place; ~ tuwolt ken settle, bring an end to, conclude, complete; 2. v-do. reveal, pull out, take out

irgem 1. n. coat, cloak; 2. n. regalia

ilespy n. duck

ipsin n. earlobe

ijem 1. a. sour; 2. a. fitting, appropriate (in the sense of ‘just desserts’), ironic, sickening


jagaov n. settlement

jalo 1. n. component, part, piece, ingredient (from the point of view of construction or makeup, e.g., walls of a building, planning of an event); 2. n. spot, location, place (geographical)

jag n. honey

jaz a. low, short (objects)

jast 1. a. sharp; 2. a. extreme, severe, uncompromising

jats 1. n. point, tip; 2. n. peak, climax

jez n. beloved, love, dear

jezihh v-do. accept, deem acceptable, approve of

jelet v-io. respect [inv. jolot]

jels1 1. v-0. run; 2. v-do. chase, run after; shevente ~ be lazy; 3. a. in a rush, in a hurry; 4. a. vibrant, vivacious; 5. a. cool, awesome • jelshap v-0. jog, run slowly

jels2 a. green

jeletihh a. scattered, dispersed, sparse • jeletihhirs v-0. scatter, disperse, spread out • jeletihhuiz v-do. scatter, disperse, spread out

jelemmuz n. skeleton

jelhuin v-0. relax • jelhuigleg v-0. waste away

jehhin n. love • jehhineps v-io. love

jemmesh n. universe

jetik v-do. provide, supply

jennet v-do. belong to

jeniv 1. v-do. say happily; 2. v-do. know, speak (DO: a language)

jes n. lightning, flash

jeshint n. fly

jeshil v-sv. aimlessly

jestsy n. secret

jeveriv n. animal hide, leather

jezy n. chin

jihhis a. fuzzy

jil n. ice

jimnet v-0. bounce

jinmer v-do. punish, penalize

jenpirer a. high, tall • jenpir n. height

jist a. dull, blunt

jity v-cv. do right away, diligently [inv. juta]

jiniew n. scroll

jiniz v-do. unroll, unfurl

jinishhez v-do. roll up [jiniz + -shhe-]

jisinket v-do. reach, extend to (non-volitional)

jjanuv1 1. n. custom; 2. n. accent (distinct pronunciation)

jelliet2 n. cluster

jaftuz n. axe

jikez v-po. (ho) plant

jjim 1. n. imprint, print, footprint; 2. n. wear, dilapidation; • jjimmeps 1. a. having impressions, furrows; 2. a. worn, dilapidated

jjenz n. sourness • jjenenz a. sour

jires c. or (exclusive, but weak; at least one of the clauses is probably true, but they may both be false; used to present possibilities and suggestions)

jo cl. indicates DOs of most verbs

jofsho a. hideous, repulsive, horrid, horrible, vile, ugly

jolot v-io. disrespect, look down on, disapprove of

johhun n. hatred • johhunurg v-do,po. incite to hatred, inflame, bad-mouth (DO is addressee, (lly marks object of hatred) • johhunops v-io. hate • johhuglan n. loathing • johhuglanops v-io. despise, detest, loathe

jonso jense v-eo. go astray (unintentionally, while walking)

joltuz n. thunder

juns n. rag

julutaz n. decadence • jultuzaz a. decadent

junut n. rake

jult n. judge; v-do. judge, consider, deliberate on

jushhag n. saffron

juskumat v-sv. delay, put off, postpone, stall (to avoid...): juskumasht hlowa-jos kfinshen tumna tseny pashop vulullotus ‘he delayed fixing the roof, until a storm destroyed it’ • juskumaps a. indecisive, overwhelmed

jir n. thread • jirgiz 1. v-io. sew together, sew up; 2. v-cv. wrap up, conclude, finish up (speaking) • jirgizig n. needle


ka1 n. this, that (points out something near speaker, addressee, or other referrent)

kaj n. spice, herb, seasoning • kajur v-io. add spice to, season

kajj> n. peacock

kallak n. knife

kalo 1. a., n. two; 2. a., n. second

kam v-do. eat • kaglam 1. v-do. devour, feast on; 2. v-do. loot (DO: items)

kams v-do. collide (with), hit, land on: rejjy llow kamsuft ‘I hit my hand on a table’

kanga post. relative to, compared to, more than, beyond, considering one’s status as, for: kevresh gelehiene kanganos ‘it’s bigger than an olive / it’s big, compared to an olive / it’s big, for an olive’; v-do. be inferior to, be less than

kanotsat v-do. neglect (people) • kanotsatoho n. neglected person, loner

kanta kente v-eo. be sharp (intelligent), on the ball

kantsovou n. mango [P. kántôbo]

kanug n. incense [rel. kanv]

kanv2 n. smell, scent, odor, fragrance • kanovat v-do. smell (passively) • kanvav 1. v-do. smell (actively), sniff; 2. v-do. inhale • kanvops v-0. smell, have an odor: pasha kanvapsh malogapsoshof ‘the mangosteen smells strange’

kaohafluz n. pelican

kaolol n. marble (stone)

kararv v-do. yell, shout (in anger or pain) (DO: direct quote)

karont n. bitumen

kashk 1. a. young, new; 2. a. unfinished, in production, in the works • kashkupou a. childish, immature

kast n. rug, carpet

kasunar n. apricot

kavash n. embarrassment • kavashops a. embarrassed • kavashur v-io. embarrass

kaz n. cup • kammaz n. large cup, mug

kegienint n. rainbow

kehinz n. cookie

kelny n. grass

kem 1. v-0. walk backwards, step back; 2. v-sv. give up (on), turn back from, retreat from; 3. v-io. stay out of, stand back from, give way to; 4. v-io. let down, fail, disappoint [inv. kom]

kemmew n. dove

kemty 1. a. dizzy, reeling; 2. a. anxious, distressed, agitated, nervous; 3. a. uncouth, unwholesome, mildly nauseating, mildly revolting

kenpost. to, throughout, into, until, till, up to • kenez post. directly to, right up to • kenen post. toward, in the direction of

kenef i. watch out!, look out!

kenliw n. (literary) dumfoundedness, shock, astonishment • kenliwir v-io. (literary) dumfound, shock, astonish

kenny1 1. v-do. go with out (article of clothing); 2. eschew, avoid, shun, spurn [inv. konnu] • kennirs 1. v-do. take off, undress (oneself); 2. v-do. cancel, undo, reverse; • kennirg v-do,po. undress (someone else), take off (lly marks clothing)

kenny2 n. nut

kenv n. aching, dull pain • kenveps v-0. suffer aching, dull pain

kerpinzez n. elegant, fine, refined

kerv 1. v-cv. believe, think, expect; 2. v-sv. want; 3. vi. act purposely; • kervuiv n. belief, idea, expectation • kervit v-sv. decide • kervizvuiv n. decision

keveliyf v-do. reveal, divulge [inv. kovoliaf]

kevit2 1. v-0. wake; 2. v-0. rise (sun) • kevirg v-do. wake

kevrer a. big, large • kevreks n. size • kevrir v-0. swell, grow, increase

kewwij n. eyelash

kewy 1. v-do. conquer, take over; 2. v-do. detain, arrest, confiscate

kez n. thing, object, item, belonging • kezejjy n. pile, stack, heap • kezrint n. market • kezeks n. material, raw material, scratch

kezvuit n. noun

kezvuitlieg n. adjective [kezvuit + -lieg]

kfa 1. v-do. break, break up, divide (something that was unitary, or if made of different pieces, not along those lines); 2. v-0. create unrest, disorder, discord, a disturbance, a tumult, a to-do • kfaglog v-do. dismantle, take apart in orderly way • kfaho a. broken

kfejy v-do. greet

kfewy v-0. (formal) sit, be seated (state) • kfewirs v-0. (formal) sit down, be seated (change of state)

kfill 1. v-do. whistle; 2. v-0s. lisp

kfov v-sv. still, keep going, stubbornly persist

kfunlohh n. vinegar

kfy v-do. put together (something that was broken), fix, mend, correct • kfigleg v-do. set up, organize

kiaf kiyf v-eo. munch

kiahow n. skull

kianofuz n. mist, haze • kianofuzoho 1. a. obscured by mist or haze; 2. a. distant, far-off; 3. a. soft, quiet • kianofuzuz a. misty, hazy

kiav v-0. smile • kiavaman n. mouth

kiev n. writing, literature • kievgiz v-do. read • kievig n. document, inscription, text, message, note • kievit v-do. write; n. writer, author • kievitlieg n. writing implement

kiljenet n. box, container, cage

kinfy n. seaweed species

kingez a., n. favorite

kip 1. n. string, rope; 2. n. path, way (metaphorical) • kiftriz n. net

kirnem v-0. hum

kiskerm a. bloodshot, hemorrhaged

kiunvula n. dislike • kiunvulaps 1. v-io. dislike; 2. v-0. (colloquial) spoil, sour, go bad (liquids)

kiynefiz n. 1. clear air, clearness, clarity; 2. forgetfulness (euphemistic) [inv. kala]

kizmezy2 n. feces, dung, manure • kizmezit v-0. defecate

kizy1 v-do. harrass

kla kly v-eo. tinkle (sound of glass breaking)

klaf n. boulder

klaos n. poverty, lack of money, little money • klaosas 1. a. poor; 2. a. cheap; 3. v-do. spend meagerly on, be frugal or stingy with

klefif n. dwarf, midget

klemy n. beard

klev n. area, field, topic

klimik n. origin, root, source

kllehy n. simplicity • kllehieps a. simple

kllohu n. complexity • kllohwops a. complex, complicated

kllom v-0. have leprosy

klo kle v-eo. act excitedly, hurriedly, in a ramshackle way

klujiuj n. a lot, much

klunuk a. little (amount); v-cv. hardly, barely

kluriaskak n. flea

kohhnahh a. surprising; n. surprise

koho kehe v-eo. explode

kolgon n. drum

kolhlonmak 1. a. sore, aching; 2. a. bothersome, troublesome

kolus n. dog

kom v-0. walk • komonio n. walk • komosto v-cv. help, aid, assist

konnu v-do. wear • konnurs v-do. put on, dress (oneself) in • konnurg v-do,po. dress (someone else) in (lly marks clothing)

korf v-io. check, check on, find out about, look into, see about

kosha v-do. thwart, counter, undo

kovahh n. chest, torso

kovoliaf v-do. keep secret • kovoliavuiv n. secret

krago a. ninth

kreg 1. n. belly; 2. n. central room

krimm n. heel

kroiuz n. back (part of body)

kropamm n. epidemic, plague

ksahh 1. n. section of a limb; 2. n. line (mark, shape)

ksampan n. spokesperson, ambassador [P. ksamfâny ‘friend’]

ksermy n. thrill

ksinfet 1. v-0. set out, go out (to do something); 2. v-io. join in, participate in (temporarily or on a trial basis)

ksovav v-sv. persuade, convince (to act): ksoviaft ksezinfenesh lel glis ‘I convinced him not to set out in the rain’, ksovashkot lufonowon ka naza glill fewsy hoh ‘They persuaded the king to have him sing at the banquet’

ksurt n. beat, pulse, pang, step, stop (on a route), occurrence, wave, instance (one out many)

ksy ksy v-eo. sound like hands rubbing together

kuliup n. unit of currency, equal to 1/100 traia

kuluz n. urine • kulzut v-0. urinate

kurv a. small, little, tiny • kurvurs v-0. shrink, contract

kwannur v-sv. reflect, refer to, betray, indicate (passively)

kweriz n. shine, gleam • kwerizez v-0. shine, gleam

kwuraz n. meaning


llep 1. n. family; 2. n. relative

la cl. indicates IO

lafiuf n. valley

lag post. among

laiul n. edge

lamom 1. v-do,io. call (in loud voice), shout, yell (to get someone’s attention; 2. v-cv. declare, set, establish, legislate

lahhlap n. large hail

lanas n. countryside

latols 1. v-0. hide; 2. v-do. cover; 3. v-do. put out, extinguish (fire); 4. v-do. cut off (e.g. from contact, trade); 5. v-do. act dishonestly regarding, cheat on (task, examination); 6. v-do. spy on; 7. v-io. lock oneself up with, delve into, plumb (document, issue); 8. v-io. be absorbed in, assimilate to, merge with • latolsurg v-do. hide

le cl. indicates noun that is identical with that embedded in the verb

lesk n. peace, tranquility

lehhihh a. real, actual

lel n. rain • lemmel n. heavy rain

lems 1. a. same, identical; v-do. be the same as; 2. n. identical twin; 3. v-do. be as much as, to the same degree as; post. as much as, according to, in accordance with, following; • lemsigleg a. mutual, balanced, symmetrical

lemmin n. half

lemny n. cloud • lemnips 1. a. cloudy, overcast; 2. a. melancholy, sullen • lemnigleg n. fog • lemnigleps a. foggy

lemry n. top of foot [inv. lomra]

leny n. love, adoration, fawning • lenir v-io. love, adore, fawn over, dote on

lumag n. coral

let 1. v-do. be connected to, be joined to (physically; state); a. together, joined, connected; 2. v-do. communicate with, get message across to • letit 1. v-do. connect, join (physically); 2. v-do. show, demonstrate; 3. v-do. prove, confirm, validate, verify • letirs v-do. be connected to, be joined to (change of state)

lereks n. scoffery, mockery, disdain, clownishness, buffoonery

lenhhit v-sv. long for, yearn for (something formerly possessed or experienced)

lhamush 1. v-do. throw; 2. v-do. wrestle

lhan a. light (weight) • lhanoks n. lightness (weight)

lhasnak n. blow, hit, punch

lhammo n. large pomegranate

lhe n. pleasure • lhere 1. a. pleasant, pleasurable; v-io. please, satisfy, gratify; 2. v-io. engross, absorb

lhehy n. knee

lheiyp n. handle, knob

lhelingiz v-do. climb

lhepy n. significance, importance • lhepipse a. significant, important; v-0. matter

lheshelly n. large panda-like animal

lhety v-do. meet (first time)

lhewliv 1. v-do. reach (over to, up to, etc.), stretch to (S: people): norajat lhevem? ‘can you reach the ceiling?’; 2. v-do. arrive at (location) (S: people); 3. v-do. shine on, illuminate; 4. v-sv. declare, assert • lhewlivui n. reach, ability (S: people) • lhewlishhev v-do. retract, recant (statement)

lhenz n. power • lhenzez 1. v-io. have power over; 2. v-io. blame, accuse • lhenzir v-io. empower • lhenzirs v-0. come to power, take over

lhumarg a. salty

lhohllu n. weed

lhetiejez 1. v-0. yell, shout, groan loudly (without pronouncing specific words); 2. v-sv. energetically, excitedly, enthusiastically

lhoks n. slave

lhoshiunn v-cv. get away with

lhovonaz 1. v-do. accept, espouse (idea); 2. v-do. consider important, care about; v-do. psv. be important, matter, be of interest • lhovonazuif v-do. promote (idea) • lhovonazvuiv v-do. interest, concern, care

lhuf n. hail

lhy c. if

lhin 1. a. heavy; 2. a. low, deep (sound) • lhineks2 n. heaviness

lials 1. n. seed; 2. n. bait

list v-0. appear, become visible, become perceptible

ligiel v-io. yield to, give in to [inv. lagiol]

lijmeriv v-do. frighten, scare

lhetiehy n. songbird

lim n. wine

lir n. kind, type, sort, variety, species • ligler n. category, class

lozotra 1. a. empty, hollow; 2. a. hungry • lozotraz 1. v-0. empty out, hollow; 2. v-0. calm, ease, subside, abate; • lozotrarg 1. v-do. empty, hollow out, clear; 2. v-do,v-sv. suppress, put down, subdue

limhhy 1. n. hole; 2. n. mountain pass; 3. n. shortcut; 4. n. abbreviation

liwwemhh n. gem, jewel

llap n. here

llaf n. grammar

llalieks n. pattern

lloru post. to the disadvantage of, on • lloruvuiv n. disadvantage, drawback, weakness, deficiency; [inv. llery]

llass n. yolk

llaw post. as, just like (in appearance, sound, mood)

llawlaol n. fox

llent1 a. positive, optimistic [inv. llo]

llent2 1. v-0. sit for a while, lounge around (state); 2. v-sv. work on for a long time, gradually, slowly • llentirs v-0. sit down for a while (change of state) • llentirg a. laborious, time-consuming

llelif n. another time; v-0. repeat; v-sv. again • lleligleg n. anniversary

llennij n. order, arrangement, sequence • llennijeps a. ordered, in sequence • llenniz 1. v-io. arrange, put in order, organize; 2. v-io. use well, use every part of • llennijirs v-0. come out right

llesty n. (literary) sun

lliep v-cv. know how

llery post. for (the benefit of) • llerivuiv n. benefit, advantage, merit, use, purpose, point

lligieg a. curved, bent, twisted; v-0. curve, bend, twist

llinekiet 1. n. direction; 2. n. orientation

llinmii n. proverb

lliplez v-do. miss, long for

llermiz 1. v-0. advance (in battle); 2. v-io. follow (leader) [inv. llormuz]

llont a. negative, pessimistic

llonnuj a. disorder, diasarray • llonnujops a. disordered, random • llonuz v-io. scramble, reorder, mix up • llonujurs v-0. come out wrong [inv. lleme]

llongo llenge v-eo,cv. rashly

llunv n. bitterness • llunvav a. bitter

llnehy2 1. v-do. tie, bind; 2. v-do. solve, take care of • llnehig n. knot

llunamhh n. steam

llnuhas n. distant area, distance

llormuz 1. v-do. avoid (other’s activity); 2. v-0. retreat (from battle)

llow n. table

lly post. 1. indicates demoted DO in a causative construction; 2. as regards

lol 1. v-0. exist, happen, occur, take place; 2. v-do. be • lolgul n. state, condition, status • lolurs v-0. be born • lofluif v-do. give birth to • lofluipou n. new parent (previously childless) • lolursapash n. birthday • lolursunt n. birthplace

lonf v-do. cut hair of

lofo lefe v-eo. procrastinate, loaf around, act slowly

lohllap n. proper place, where something belongs

lommo lemme v-eo. wobble around, waddle

lomnaps a. mildly happy, happy with reservations, satisfied [inv. lemnips]

lomno lemne v-eo. be sometimes happy and sometimes not [lommo lemme and lomnapso]

loms a. different, distinctive • lomsurs v-0. change • lomorsuglors 1. v-0. develop, evolve; 2. v-0. succumb, give in (to person, idea, emotion) • lomsurg v-do. change, influence, effect • lomsuglog a. at odds, unbalanced, asymmetrical

lorm n. sole (of foot) • lormuguz 1. v-io. step on; 2. hit or push forcefully; 3. v-io. play (drum) • lormapash n. ground, floor

loup n. coconut [P. lóp]

lotush n. boldness, forwardness • lotushash a. bold, forward

hhaflout n. island of Khafos • hhafospou n. Khafos person, Khafos speaker • hhafos n. Khafos language

lonvas v-cv. be furious, enraged (about) [P. lôbas]

limhh n. worm

lovuim v-do. ravage

lowtaw v-0. commit suicide

luf v-po. (ho) sing [trunc. lurulufo]

lust v-0. disappear, vanish [inv. liste]

luluhh n. tip (endpoint)

lulamhh a. pathetic, pitiful

lutot n. grape

luwonv n. comb

lehhlesh n. lullaby

lapsas a. purple

lutu lity v-eo. make fluttering sound

luwsho n. seaweed species

lumug n. fork


mahla 1. a., n. five; 2. a., n. fifth

majot n. lament

malh 1. v-do. come upon, find (unintentionally); 2. v-do. interrupt (unintentionally)

marf n. dried fruit

marg n. fullness, wholeness, completion • margut v-io. practice, work on, reinforce

mariu n. tyrant, despot

mart a. fat

maru n. throat • marups a. hoarse, throaty (S: speech, not people) • marupsurg a. hilarious, very funny

marwas a. very fat, obese

mas n. sight (what is seen), image • masmaf 1. v-cv. see; 2. v-cv. tolerate, put up with: mafaf zuniumof vona mewil glis ‘I’ve put up with you snoring for a long time’; 3. v-sv. should, find it appropriate, want • masmaglof v-cv. look at, watch

maskush n. famine

masorv n. strangeness • masorvav a. strange

mav v-do. put together, assemble, fashion (from parts)

mazgo mezgy v-eo. slow down, wind down

meflit 1. n. a lot, much, many; ~ leme a lot, very, really; a. a lot of, much, many; 2. v-sv. a lot, very, really: meflish kamonosh ‘he eats a lot’, meflim ehilenesh ‘you really have him travel a lot’; 3. a. great, intense, acute, large, big, heavy, quite a

mehriz 1. v-do. pay attention to; 2. v-do. support (person, idea); 3. v-do. be in the habit of doing; 4. v-io. believe in, follow, espouse (idea, practice) • mehrizvui 1. n. attention; 2. n. support; 3. n. habit

mehhip v-do. bathe, wash (DO: another person)

melgiz n. friend

melhy n. strand of hair

melieg n. neighbor

melhh v-0. stop, pause, take a break (esp. while journeying; for a meal, to complete a task, or to stay overnight)

melre 1. c. like how (stronger than tseny); 2. c. enough that, such that

melviw post. against, contradicting

memgezy n. path, footpath (cut through vegetation)

mentelet v-io,cv. say, speak, tell, talk (about, of, how, about how, about when): irge-las naz mentelesht ‘she spoke to the man about the feast’, mentelesht merelh pamotoshnof ‘he said how he was going to kill a pig’ • mentezvuiv n. statement, utterance, speech

mentier n. tear (liquid) • mentierit 1. v-0. cry; 2. v-cv. cry over, bewail; 3. v-sv. reluctantly • mentiegleg n. sob, wail (loud) • mentieglit v-0. sob, wail, bawl (loudly) • mentiesher n. whimper • mentiesherit v-0. whimper

mentivint n. speech sound, phoneme [mentelet + -UvUnt]

menzy n. tendon

meppetry n. anthill

merelh n. pig

merg n. earth (planet)

mergii n. rest, respite, relief, reprieve, letup, remission

mershy v-0. laugh • mershivuiv n. laugh, laughter

merven v-do. (literary) create, fashion • mervengiv v-do. bring about indirectly, lead to

meshy a. awake [inv. mosha] • meshigleg a. animated, enthusiastic, lively

metelg v-do. follow, pursue, track, go after, stalk

metet n. kiss

mets n. father

mewt n. herd

mewy n. time, duration, length, how long (time)?

mez v-do. hear

miefit n. clothes

mift n. fat

mingir v-do. stick to, adhere to, clump with, attach to

mint n. what?

mir 1. v-0. open; 2. v-0. disperse, come apart, part: lemnik mirishket ‘the clouds parted’; 3. v-0. spread out, extend oneself, stretch out, splay; 4. v-0. peel, flake • mirigleg a. huge, giant (S: esp. animals) • miruiz 1. v-do. open; 2. v-do. peel, flake pieces off; 3. v-do. spread; 4. v-do. analyze, unravel, examine, sort out, try to figure out

mirv v-0. sing • mirehe n. song (primarily vocal)

miv v-do. break, break up, take apart, disassemble (something made of different pieces) [inv. mav]

miwrep n. small bowl

mhhafto n. dagger

mhhar n. eye • mhharuvunt n. eye socket

mhhelit mhholat v-eo. (colloquial) do a crappy job [mhhelit]

mhhelit n. dump, hole (used mockingly of places) [inv. mhholat]

mhhen n. life • mhheneps a. alive; v-0. live • mhheglen v-0. flourish

mhhenv v-do. notice

mhherv 1. v-sv. desire, will, fancy; 2. v-cv. be touched by (emotionally)

mhholat mhhelit v-eo. (colloquial) do a good job [inv. mhhelit mhholat]

mhholat n. tower

mhhurmu v-do. enrapture, captivate, inspire, enthrall, spellbind

mhhuz n. despair • mhhuzurg a. 1. distressing; 2. insurmountable, unsolvable • mhhuzaz v-0. despair

mlalow n. waterfowl

mlawz n. oven

mlehh v-0. show up, arrive, come along, appear (S: people, animals)

mlezihh a. skinny, thin

mlirmer v-do. have phlegm

mlo mle v-eo. act tired, drowsy

mmeiy a. ugly

mohh 1. v-do. not pay attention to, ignore, neglect; 2. v-do. pass by; 3. v-do. step over • moglohh v-do. actively ignore, avoid, distract oneself from • mohhurs v-do. renounce, reject, recant, wash hands of, forget about • mohhurskush v-do. reaccept, take back, forgive

monfas n. twilight

mopash n. cake

morum n. water, body of water • morgaov n. ocean, sea • mormunt n. lake • mormuvunt n. pond

moruhh n. cave

mosha meshy v-eo. cry out for one’s parent(s) during the night (S: young children) [first syllables of mesy and shisy, also inf. mosha and mursha]

motauk n. villager, townsfolk

mots 1. n. knuckle; 2. n. hinge

motwush a. asleep; v-0. sleep • motwushap a. tired • motwushnur n. narcolepsy • motwushunt n. bedroom • motwuz 1. v-0. fall asleep; 2. v-0. deteriorate, decline, wane; 3. v-0. set (sun);

mralut 1. v-0. delay; v-sv. delay, put off; 2. v-po. (hoiu) wait for, await (event); 3. v-io. (positive) leave behind, leave undone, neglect

mrefnet v-sv. advise, recommend, suggest • mrefnezvuiv n. advice, recommendation, suggestion • mrefnew n. proverb, saying • mrefneshit v-cv. imply, hint, insinuate

mreliet n. cultivated field

mremmew 1. v-do. choose, pick, select; 2. v-do. intercede in, intervene in; 3. v-do. strain, extract (solid, from liquid)

mrintev v-io. welcome

mrity 1. v-0. act immediately, jump in; v-sv. immediately, right away; 2. v-po. (hoiu) not wait for (event); 3. v-io. (negative) leave behind, leave undone, neglect [inv. mratu]

mrowo v-do. reject, turn down (one of several options) [inv. mrewe]

mrush v-0. flee, run away, fly away

mulg n. water • mulguz v-0. 1. be in water; 2. float • mulgur v-io. water

mulgoz n. enemy

mulkut n. armor

mummar n. dough, batter

mun n. moo • munut v-0. moo

munnow v-do. be called, be known as (S: objects, concepts, not people or places)

mur 1. v-0. close; 2. v-0. heal (minor surface wounds) • muruiz v-do. close

muronz v-do. bake

mussat a. next, following

mutlu mitly v-eo. giggle

mwehhmy v-do. gouge out the eyes of [P. mwèkma]


neplit v-0. swim

naiowwo n. monster

naw1 post. between

naw2 n. tornado

nurm v-sv. stop, cease • nurmuif v-do,po. (lly) stop, cease

nnalv n. life force, animation, spirit

nowot n. plate

nammuz n. yam

num n. humidity • numops a. humid; 2. v-0. feel humidity

naromp v-do,io. put on top of, load onto

namwo v-sv. need, demand

nahhmuv n. banana

nerm v-0. begin, start • nermuif v-do,po. (lly) begin, start

nuvas n. acid

nash n. onion

nawwov 1. n. pain; 2. n. moment of downfall, crisis, upheaval • nawwovops 1. v-po. (ho) be in pain from, suffer from; 2. v-0. suffer downfall, crisis, upheaval; 3. v-io. be bested by, be outdone by, lose to, be defeated by; 4. v-io. indulge, oblige, cater to, humor, pamper, spoil • nawwovurg 1. v-io. hurt, cause pain, harm; 2. v-io. bring to a crisis, downfall, upheaval

namnuv n. explanation

naz1 n. basketl

naz2 n. feast, banquet • nazuf v-po. (ho) feast on

naz2 post. beyond

ne c. and then (the second event immediately follows the first) [trunc. ieline]

nefly n. (pl. neflek) small island

negiig n. paste, cream

negemit n. pear

nezgy n. fruit

nejir v-0. move (house) • nejjigleg v-0. migrate (S: large group)

nekrip n. root (tree)

nele1 a., n. too much • neleshky a., n. (negative) enough

netsilh n. feather

nemhher n. song sung while walking

nenleg n. bait, trigger; nenlew n. verbal motivation, egging on, cajoling

ner1 a. only, sole

ner2 1. v-0. go for a walk, stroll; 2. v-do. visit; 3. v-sv. do occasionally; 4. v-sv. do for a short while; 5. v-sv. try out; a. noncommittal; 6. a. fleeting, ephemeral • nervui 1. n. walk, stroll; 2. n. visit • nemmer v-0. plod along • nershap 1. v-0. tip-toe; 2. v-0. prance • neremin n. leg

niwsh n. idea

neshfez n. thought • neshfezeps v-sv. think about, ponder, imagine • neshfeshhe n. one who thinks too much

netry n. ankle

netsteve n. pronoun [netste velegle]

nentiw n. debate (between two people) • nentiglew n. debate (communal, national)

niothhow n. ink

niamop n. copper

nilv n. color • nilveps v-do. be a color: hhel nilvish ‘it’s ‘blue’; a. colored, painted • nilemmev n. strong, bright, bold color • nilemmeveps v-do. be strongly colored: hhel nilemmevish ‘it’s very blue’; a. colorful, bright, bold • nilvir v-do. dye, color • nilviwesh n. paint, dye

nilvinir n. stain [nilv ‘color’ + -nUr]

ninjy 1. a. first, original, native; 2. n. first moment; 3. v-io. precede

nilehh n. safety, sturdiness, stability • nilehheps a. safe, sturdy, stable, sound

nossahh n. monkey

ninjet 1. v-do. look at closely, peer at, scrutinize, study; 2. v-do. critique, criticize, review • ninjeglet v-do. edit, tweak

ninhh n. kiln

nintelehh v. besiege

ninviw v-do. return (borrowed item) [inv. nunvaw]

ninep v-do. burst into, barge into

ninz n. punishment, penalty

ninzez v-do. punishment, penalty []

nevik n. energy, vigor, liveliness • nevikeps a. energetic, vigorous, lively

nisher n. fish

nisy n. base (chemical)

nofto n. night

nohafa n. best friend

nohhpot n. agitation, unrest, disturbance, unease • nohhpotur 1. v-io. foment, stir up, induce, elicit, rouse, draw out, bring out; 2. v-io. cir. covet, be envious, be jealous

nonfa v-do. 1. call, seek out, send for; 2. turn against

nongahh n. purpose, point, goal, end, aim, motive • nongahhops a. finished, done, achieved, ready

nezenny< n. intermittent pain • nezenninps v-0. suffer intermittent pain

nonza a. blind

nehhpet n. salvation, deliverance • nehhpetir v-io. save, deliver

nopow n. lesson, class • nopowunt n. classroom

norajat n. ceiling

nonurt n. buttocks

norh v-do. obey, listen to

nostso nestse v-eo. make crunching sound

nowas a. enchanting

nnupah n. ring (jewelry)

nremlhe n. decoration • nremlhere v-io. decorate, adorn

nrety 1. v-io. share, cooperate on; 2. v-cv. think that maybe, possibly

nrotu 1. v-io. hoard, keep for oneself, refuse to share; 2. v-io. keep to oneself, isolate oneself [IO same as S]; 2. v-cv. dismiss the possibility that; 3. v-cv. conceal the fact that, refuse to admit, deny [inv. nrety]

nrupok 1. v-do. shave; 2. v-do. clear away

nruta n. tragedy

nun n. war • nushhon n. war-dead • nunshap n. battle, skirmish

nufra n. vice • nufrashho n. partaker of a vice, addict

nuhah v-0. lurk

nuviolan 1. a. last, final; 2. n. last, final moment; 3. v-do. follow (in a sequence)

nunvak 1. v-0. withdraw, retract forces; 2. sneak out

nunvaw 1. v-do. borrow (object other than money); 2. v-do. use briefly; 3. v-do. repeat, reiterate • nunvawnur v-do. keep something after borrowing it

nursh n. ox

nwel n. grass

nwervef n. slingshot

ny post. of (time of)

nottuz n. lime (fruit)


ofan n. illness, disease • ofanops 1. a. (colloquial) ill, sick; v-po. (ho) be sick, ill with; 2. v-io. be sick, ill through lack of (water, food) • ofanur v-io. sicken, make ill • ofanurs v-0. get sick, ill

ofloluhh a. modernistic, innovative, modern, newfangled, new

og a. bad • ovui n. evil • ogog 1. n. iniquity, evil act; 2. n. misfortune, tragedy • oglam a. evil • ogur n. bad sign, bad omen; a. inauspicious

ohahh v-cv. suppose, surmise, guess, predict: ohasht vanto mulo rohwasnof ramlok iomolh hroloh ‘she predicted that the boat would sink within three days’

ohoshhou a. mundane

ojaj 1. v-sv. avoid (own activity), refrain from; 2. v-sv. toil; 3. v-do. (literary) detest, abhor (person, personal characteristic)

ojjat n. louse

ohhash n. sadness • ohhashops a. sad • ohhashur 1. v-io. sadden; 2. v-io. rebut, contradict • ohhashurs v-0. get sad

olot a. insane, crazy

oluhh a. common, widespread [inv. elihhy] • oluhhuif v-do. spread, disseminate, popularize

omarat n. angle

omols 1. n. discomfort; 2. n. dishonor, discredit, disgrace, shame

ompoz v-do. condemn, damn

omut v-0. act, behave • omuzvui n. behavior, comportment, demeanor • omuzvui n. culture

onak n. vacuum, absence

onaz n. sheet

ongat 1. n. mud; 2. a. muddy; 3. a. adulterated, compromised, insincere

onnozaw n. alcohol

ontur v-io. mock, make fun of

onwuh n. disappointment, dejection • onwups a. disappointed, dejected, let-down

opal n. lump (of something)

opolul n. magically created creature

opuj a. cute

orat n. shard

orom n. middle

orumhh n. depth • orumhhaps a. deep

osag 1. v-do. defend against; 2. v-do. be mismatched to, not go with, clash with (figuratively) • osagaov n. fort, fortress

oshhun 1. n. stillness; 2. n. depression (emotional) • oshhunops 1. a. still; 2. a. depressed (emotionally)

oshmul v-do. steal; n. thief

oskolj a. ridiculous

oslop n. dungeon

osnuwwoz a. wicked, cruel

otiak v-do. crash into

otsok n. jaw

otstog n. thing

ovot n. falsity, falseness (general concept) • ovotops a. false • ovoskus n. falsehood, lie • ovotur v-io. deny, negate

owaga v-do.: safuvunt ~ slur (speech)

owwaz n. 1. epitome, paragon, prototype; 2. prime, prototypical

ozag 1. v-0. become distracted, lose focus; 2. v-io. lose, misplace (physical object); 3. v-cv. wonder, marvel, be astonished; 4. v-sv. fail to think of (idea for plan of action) • ozafluif v-do. distract, blind

ozash n. boom


piosus 1. a. sturdy, stable, solid, well-built; 2. a. consistent, reliable

ponart n. bed • ponashart n. cradle

psel 1. v-cv. look at, watch (person, performance); n. spectator, onlooker; 2. a. the rest of, the remainder of, all the other

paw 1. n. method, way; 2. n. structure, ordering (of text, oration, argument); 3. n. formula, recipe, plan, design

pa post. by (indicates amount or amount of time something is done)

pa3 i. (literary) how?

pamhhasna a. wide-eyed

pahha n. silver

palat1 n. cheek

palat2 v-0. live, dwell (permanently) • palatunt n. abode, dwelling • palashap v-0. lodge, stay, reside (temporarily) • palashkanto n. hotel, inn

pall post. of (amount, group)

panvap n. harmony (music)

pamon n. yogurt

pagmush v-0. clot

panut v-do. kill

ponavav v-do. murder

pazamp n. cut stone for building

panan (na. pazan) 1. n.: ~ kla to where?: sazum pazan klahh? ‘where are you going?’; 2. v-0. (literary) go where?: pazanum jelsisenv? ‘where is he running to?’

pargag n. concern, worry • pargagops a. concerned, worried; v-io. be concerned, be worried, worry about • pargagur v-io,po. (lly) concern, cause to worry about

pasfa post. like (in value, worth, composition)

parhham n. thunder

porum n. life

pash n. mangosteen [P. pash]

pashop n. storm

pashov n. cow

patsut n. rhythm

pariav a. cute

pew n. person

pe part. indicates proper nouns

pej n. arm • pejir v-io. punch

pesleiyv n. strap (on clothing)

pemier 1. a. flat, level, smooth; 2. a. balanced, steady; 3. n. layer, level, course (e.g of stones) • pemieruif 1. v-do. smooth out, flatten; 2. v-do. balance, steady

pemswe a., n. nine [trunc. pemiswe]

pemy 1. a., n. (archaic) ten; 2. a., n. (archaic) tenth

pentissem a. spindly, long and winding

penzy a. cream, ointment (medicinal, cosmetic)

pehhiz n. amethyst

pelir n. palm (of hand)

petilepy lepy v-eo. drag something out by going back and forth between alternatives, dilly-dally

pewneliz n. care, caution • pewnelips v-cv. carefully, cautiously

pewwez n. chisel

pezwezy n. scissors, shears

parwum n. rose

phhuvun n. alliance • phhuvunpou n. ally

pelill n. target

plir a. excellent

pefiz n. speck, bit

plewir n. spouse

pontav n. long-term illness, disease, condition • pontavav a. ill, sick long-term • pontavurg v-io. sicken, make ill

pesy v-do. overcome, survive • pesir v-do. recover from, recuperate from

phher 1. v-do. waste; 2. v-do. misuse, misdirect, misappropriate; pushtuk ~ speak in vain, waste words; 3. v-cv. do constantly, incessantly

phhery a. crippled, lame

phhush n. iris (part of eye)

plemnips a. full, plump, ripe • plemnirs v-0. fill out, ripen, well up (tears)

plerek i. please

pewilt n. butter

plehher n. happiness, gladness, contentedness • plehhereps a. happy, glad, content, pleased • plehherir v-io. cheer up, please, gladden

pollug n. tree stump

plum n. tree (smaller) • pluntruz n. orchard • plumunt n. grove

ply ply v-eo. chortle

plusha v-do. wipe, wipe off, pick (nose), clean out

poiaz v-0. come (S: animal; usually used as a command)

puwwat n. bowl, plate, cup, pot, pan, any concave dish or vessel

pomarnat v-do. dismiss, fire, expel

pohol n. list

puslul n. anger, temper • puslups 1. a. angry; 2. a. fierce, harsh, serious • puslurg v-io. anger

pomior 1. a. uneven, unlevel, bumpy; 2. a. unbalanced, unsteady [inv. pemier]

ponanssa n. dried meat, jerky

pongo penge v-eo. be nervous

ponsa n. authority, official

polar n. back of hand [inv. pelir]

ponhhur n. task, errand, chore

posaw n. whey

poruz n. stretch, expanse, sweep, vast area, (of land); a. vast, wide, expansive

poshha n. generation

poshok n. bear

posnagant n. termite

plot v-do. shut, close (eyes, mouth)

powwal v-0. wander, amble, roam, clamber • powwaluiz 1. v-do. overthrow; 2. v-do. overcome (illness, situation)

pownoluz n. rashness, carelessness [inv. pewnelez] • pownolups a. rash, careless

parahh v-do. graze on

pra pry v-eo. act too important to concern oneself with someone else, thumb one’s nose at someone else

pesehh n. kindness, consideration, friendliness • pesehheps a. kind, considerate, nice, friendly

ponugat 1. a. unkempt, disheveled, rumpled, toussled, messed up; 2. v-0. beat, throb, pulsate • ponugatuif 1. v-do. dishevel, rumple, toussle, mess up; 2. v-do. make one’s heart beat quickly; 3. v-do. massage, caress

pruhawat v-do. spread, smear

psatog n. adventure

psana n. seaweed species

puwwas v-do. (positive) feel, experience, have (physical or mental quality), know, speak (a language)

psemmilet v-io. best, outdo, defeat, win against

psenty n. nook, niche

psery n. thought, notion, idea

pshohhup n. crowd

posohh v-do. (negative) feel, experience, have (physical or mental quality), know, speak (a language)

pulahha n. mucus, snot

pulhhatruz v-0. have one's nose run

punull v-do. meet (not first time)

paziur n. mayor

pumom n. oval

punago punago v-eo. tumble

punwa v-io. quarry, mine • punwara n. quarry

punzas n. nose

purajar n. section, area, part

pahhluj n. shelf

purwos n. empty space, room

pusht 1. n. line (of speech or writing); 2. n., a. this, that, it (refers to previously expressed thought)

putrou 1. a. possible; n. possibility, chance; v-0. be possible; 2. v-sv. pres., pst. be able to, can; 3. v-sv. fut. might, may, will possibly • putrouflui v-io,sv. invite, bid, allow, offer (to have someone do something)

punsuv v-do. succumb to (disease) • punsuvurs v-do. be in process of succumbing to (disease)

puz v-do,io. reward, pay • puzakso n. reward, pay, salary

puzgav v-0. take shelter, take refuge


ramlo 1. a., n. three; 2. a., n. third

ramuv1 n. coin

ramuv2 n. storm

ranpor 1. v-do. wave; 2. v-do. shake out, wring out

ranug n. child, kid (expresses age, not relationship)

ranv n. tail

rappok n. typhoon, hurricane

rar v-do,io. (negative) take, seize from • rashor v-do,io. borrow from

rariummu n. crane

ravlur n. (literary) reach, grasp • ravlushhor v-0. be overtaken, be caught cleverly or against the odds

rawom 1. n. hill; 2. n. forehead, brow; 3. n. (flowery) wave

raza 1. a., n. four; 2. a., n. fourth

rejjy a., n. ten [arch. rejjik ‘hands’]

relezv n. north

rem v-do,io. (positive) give, bring, furnish, equip

remmet 1. v-do. lift, pick up, raise; 2. v-do. express (emotion); 3. v-do. arbitrate between; 4. v-0. (euphemistic) vomit, throw up

renpez n. sail

repwew n. chicken

reshepe n. quartz • reshepezwe a. jagged

reshhe 1. v-do. observe; 2. v-do. ponder, deliberate, think over

reshkile a., n. tenth [rejjy2 kalo]

rewwiz 1. v-do. split, cleave; 2. v-do. refute; 3. v-do. win (argument)

rezgy n. bundle, package

rezilh a. yellow

riggep 1. v-do. gather (small things); 2. v-0. nitpick; 3. a. petty; 4. v-io. put appropriate things onto, set up, set (table), dress, clothe; 5. v-io. conjugate, decline

rigy n. leek

rihhpesh v-do. be named, be called (S: people)

rinwer n. notch, slit

rir v-do,io. (positive) take, accept, receive from

rive n. wind • rivete v-io. fan • rivemme n. gale, blast • riveshky n. breeze

rohuttoz v-0. engage in self destructive behavior, shoot onself in the foot, hurt oneself

rohwa v-do.: mulo ~ drown, sink; nonga ~ be futile, pointless, fruitless, in vain

rojav v-do. mash, pound, crush • rojavlieg n. pestle • rojammov v-do. make a cacophony, clamor, commotion, tumult

rojja rejjy v-eo. hold hands [arch. rejjy]

rom2 n. walnut

rom2 v-do,io. (negative) give, bring, furnish, equip

rommon v-do. surrender to, concede to

rommot 1. v-do. put down (physically); 2. v-do. lay out; 3. v-do. land, go ashore (DO: boat) [inv. remmet]

romorut v-do. crush to extract oil [rel. rom]

roppun n. shrimp

rovona n. thin blanket • rovonomma n. thick blanket

rug n. bridge

ruggop v-do,io. give out, apportion, measure out [inv. riggep]

rumio rimie v-eo. be mucillaginous

rumnow n. paint • rumnowur v-io. paint • rumnowlieg n. painting

runag n. loop, buttonhole, eye (of needle)

rush c. near when, near where

ruzam n. tangerine

ruzvaz v-0. preen oneself, beautify oneself

ryiem n. wine


segevvin n. health • segevviv a. healthy • segevvir n. doctor, healer; v-io. heal • segevviz v-0. heal, become healthier

skeshy v-do. turn inside-out out • skeshihe a. inside-out out

skosha 1. n. hand; 2. n. aim; 3. v-do. slap, hit; 4. v-do. knock on; 5. v-do. annoy, bother • skoshaguz 1. v-io. point at, aim at; 2. v-io. scold, reprimand • skoshavunt n. glove • skoshavuiv 1. n. gesture; 2. n. sign (sign language) • skoshakos n. sign language

selehhin n. people, nation, ethnic group • selehhshap n. society, community

sunontalh 1. v-cv. complain about, whine over; 2. v-cv. boast of, brag about; 3. v-sv. complain, protest in the hope that

saz v-0. go

skeniev n. book • skenievint n. library

sulgas v-0. roar

sagior 1. v-0. stay, persevere, remain, withstand; 2. v-sv. 1. continue, keep (continuously; not repeating); 2. v-sv. drag out • sagioruiz v-do. maintain, preserve

siej n. stair, step, stool, platform • sieglej n. plateau • siejint n. staircase • siejigiz v-0. step (up or down) • siejiglez 1. v-0. zigzag, meander; 2. a. convoluted, twisted, confused

shif n. money, funds, wealth • shifef 1. a. rich, wealthy ; 2. a. expensive, costly; 3. v-do. spend extravagantly on, lavish, pamper, shower

snakanga v-sv. still, further, anymore: snaiakangash uputonosh llow silyh ‘he doesn’t dance on tables anymore’

souvuv1 n. perfection • souvups a. perfect • souvur v-io. perfect

saj n. texture • safa v-do. feel, touch (physically, passively) • safagla 1. v-do. feel (physically, actively), touch (actively); 2. v-do. feel • safamna n. finger

saf n. language • safojja n. language family • safkos n. grammar • safkush n. translation • safuif v-do. speak eloquently, orate, perorate • safkushut v-do. translate, interpret • safuvunt n. mouth • safops v-0. be able to speak

sarg n. indifference • sargops a. indifferent

saha n. gas, vapor, steam

sahha sehhe 1. v-eo. feel relieved; 2. v-eo. die down; 3. v-eo. back down, grant amnesty, let someone off, let something go

samma n. year

samofa v-do. jump down into

sann n. brick

sappa n. sandstone

smawa v-0. have a cold

sarv n. plum

sata 1. a., n. six; 2. a., n. sixth

skollav v-0. have a sore throat

ske a. this, that (points out something near speaker, audience, or other referent)

segehy 1. n. white of eye; 2. n. eyeball; 3. n. (literary) cloud

sehh a., n. that (points out item at a distance from speaker, addressee, or other referent)

seren v-io. exit (from) • serint n. entrance, exit

sekilieg n. handle

serzez v-do,io. say tentatively

seze a., n. this, that (points out an additional item)

sha 1. post. by means of, with, through: komoshon iy klas tshitymme shall ‘He’s going to walk there with a cane’; 2. post. by, for (indicates demoted subject): kamoshohosht posho shas ‘She was eaten by a bear’, vinle pitresh rava shash ‘It’s impossible for an elephant to jump’

shal1 a. rough, coarse, gritty

shal2 n. down (feathers)

shama n. vampire

shapanv n. afternoon

shapa shepe v-eo. master (a skill, subject)

sharg n. cane, staff, walking stick

sharguga n. scepter

shuls n. hut

shazaf v-0. blow (S: objects, not wind): hhity shazasht shelte klas ‘the leaf blew away’ • shazafuif v-do. blow (S: wind, not people): rive hhity shazaflusht ‘the wind blew the leaf around’

she post. from (place, time, person), of, by (creator, author) • shelte 1. n. place that is away; 2. n. origin • shegle post. away from • sheshky post. from the direction of • shehe n. result, consequence, effect

shegvizge n. weather [shegvy tes geleshe]

shegvy n. sky [trunc. shesegvy]

sheklime a. unsatisfactory, not up to par [P. sheklam ‘be bad’]

shelie n. fur • sheliefe v-po. (ho) pet

sheliy n. majority, most

shelle a. pretty, attractive, beautiful

sheme n. liking • shemegle n. love (things)

shenze n. mountain • shenzeshky n. hill (esp. foothill)

shepe n. freedom

shese n. light • shesepshe n. day (when there’s light) • shesepshely a. diurnal • shesehie n. lantern

shesty n. sun

shety 1. v-sv. try, attempt; 2. v-cv. deal with, address: gyiy shetineshen wamnak? ‘who will deal with the intruders?’ • shetivye n. try, attempt

shezme n. light source

shfurog v-do. sweep • shfuroglieg n. broom

sharat 1. v-do. (negative) get, receive (passively); 2. v-do. catch, get (disease) [inv. shirit]

shihiy n. postposition • shihiyshky n. particle (grammatical)

shihye n. appreciation, thanks, graditude • shihyere v-io. show gratitude, thank

shillne n. wing

shily a. soft (smooth or fine to the touch)

shinmet 1. a. surprising, quite a; 2. v-sv. propose, offer, suggest (idea); 3. v-sv. intend, mean (to do something)

shirejny n. forearm

shisy n. mother

shivev v-do. whip • shiveg n. whip

sheppit 1. v-do. (positive) get, obtain, acquire, win, attain, achieve (actively); 2. v-do. catch, grab, take, snatch (object); 3. v-do. focus on, pay attention to (state); 4. v-sv. succeed in, manage to

shketse 1. v-0. move; 2. v-0. react • sheshketse 1. v-0. shake, totter, wobble; a. wobbly; 2. a. limber, nimble, agile, flexible • shketsevie 1. n. movement; 2. n. reaction • shketseste 1. v-do. move; 2. v-sv. force, drive

shky n. insignificance, unimportance • shkipse a. insignificant, unimportant; v-0. not matter

shlowo shlewe v-eo. be blurry

shneg n. bucket

shnile v-0. run out (of supply)

sho c. because; post. because of

shogag n. small cart

shilit v-0. blossom

shohharg 1. n. vassal; 2. n. tribute

shopa n. energy, ability, wherewithal (to do something at a particular time)

shonumuk n. mushroom

shoso n. darkness • shosonto n. shadow, shade • shosontola v-0. rest in the shade • shosopsho n. night • shosopshola a. nocturnal

shovo 1. v-0. stand (state); 2. v-po. (we) wait for, await (person); 3. cv-po. (we) count on (person) • shovorso 1. v-0. stand up, rise (change of state); 2. v-0. pick up, get going, take off (figuratively) • shovoza v-do. make wait, hold up, stall

shte n. hatred (general concept) • shtete v-io. hate • shtetelie n. hatred (specific)

shu 1. n. time; n. fut. then (future time); n. pres. now; n. pst. then (past time); 2. n. when?; 3. i. pres. okay now, so?, well? (expresses desire to get to the point or reach a decision): shur, vashom wa vaioshom? ‘well, are you coming or not?’

shugoz n. quiver

shuhio n. the opposite of thankfulness, "thanks a lot" (said sarcastically), resentment [inv. shihye]

shunamhh v-0. glide, soar, float (in air)

shunv 1. v-do. pour; 2. v-do. swarm with, be teeming with, be riddled with; 3. v-do. (colloquial) get rid of, dispose of; 4. v-do. (colloquial) demolish

shy n. dream (during sleep or daydreaming); ~k fremze really, truly, actually • shipse v-0. dream

siehhte n. image, picture

sihhty v-0. wash oneself

simnep n. rat

sinet v-cv. accidentally, by chance

sinket n. tiger

sinlery n. unattractiveness, unsightliness, ugliness • sinlerypse a. unsightly, unattractive, ugly

sinty n. toe

sio n. base, basis, foundation; a. basic, fundamental • siolyo n. mortar (used with pestle) • siomno n. foundation (of building, road)

siv n. mouse

skata n. door

skefy n. crystal

skulv v-0. curdle • skulvulio n. type of cheese

sla sly v-eo. pierce (physically)

smara n. flaw, fault, defect, problem

smillig n. pillow

smona a. forgetful

sneky 1. v-do. admire; 2. v-do. approve of, endorse, appreciate; 3. v-io. thank

senij a. spectacular, astonishing, incredible, breathtaking, amazing

snoku 1. v-do. resent, bear a grudge; 2. v-sv. act grouchy

snono snene 1. v-eo. linger, take one’s time; 2. v-eo. be running late (S: person)

snora n. clan

snorga n. column, pillar • snorgazwo a. erect, standing straight, standing tall

sny n. eyebrow

soga n. mound

sogmat v-0. take responsibility, act responsibly • sogmazvuiv n. responsibility, charge, burden

sogug 1. a. wavy, wrinkly; 2. a. shifty, dodgy, untrustworthy

snoliul n. kidney

somm n. anchor

somonga v-do. fit (size, shape), fill, take up all of

songap n. mint

sopo v-po. (hoiu) know (person)

soro sere 1. v-eo. chase: vashoftush soro sereftef ‘I came chasing after him’; 2. v-eo,io. follow from (logically), be implied by; 3. v-eo. be rampant: pite soro seresht miryshtef ‘disease spread rampantly’; 4. v-eo. bolt, dash out [sere]

sorva 1. v-do. choke on; 1. v-sv. overdo, do too much

sova n. spring (water source)

sovo n. word • sovojja n. phrase • sovojjajja n. sentence • sovojjakso n. syntax • sovokso n. morphology • sovomma n. polysynthetic word (containing noun and verb) • sovonta n. sign (road, store) • sovormo n. lexicon, dictionary

sovo seve v-eo. be understanding, be empathetic

spehy n. land, property

sre n. fin

sropo srepe v-eo. make sound of being wiped up (esp. in one wipe)

skeiyl n. story • skeiylpou n. storyteller • skeiyleps a. interesting; v-io. be interesting due to, have something interesting: nesh-lask skeiylepsh ‘She has interesting ideas’

stehh n. witch

sto1 n. cause; v-sv. cause

sto2 post. at the bottom or top of • stola post. on the bottom or top of • stolto n. bottom or top • stomzo post. above or below

stsele 1. v-do. place, put in proper place, put away; 2. v-do. report, recount

stsofna 1. v-0. wilt, spoil, go bad (S: plants, food); 2. v-0. faint, fall (esp. from internal cause); 3. v-0. fail, lose; 4. v-0. be incomprehensible (S: speech); 5. v-0. die off, become extinct; 6. v-io.: gele-la ~ be thirsty • stsofnashka 1. v-0. stop short (of completing something), break off; 2. v-0. be unclear (S: speech, ideas) • stsofnaswo 1. a. uneasy, unsettled; 2. a. unstable, unsure, precarious, weak

suhara n. fidelity, faithfulness • suharapso a. faithful

suhhosa n. chest, torso • suhhosahio n. shirt

sulia n. rule, policy

smulul n. opinion, belief • smulops v-cv. consider (something to be...), opine, believe

sumar n. oil • sumarops a. oily, greasy

sogump n. ape

shurup n. screen (decorative)

suru n. law

swe 1. n. ability; ~ leme as much as one can, to the best of one’s ability; 2. v-io. be short of, lacking • swepse a. able; v-sv. be able • swefly v-sv. enable, allow, facilitate

swese a. attractive, enticing; v-do. attract, entice

swo 1. a. crude, unfinished, unrefined, coarse [inv. swe]; 2. a. poor, meager, shabby, pathetic • sworso v-0. go to pieces, deteriorate, fall apart, crumble, regress

sowwup n. pole

swoso v-do. disgust, repulse; a. disgusting, repulsive, gross, off-putting [inv. swese]

sy post. at the top of • silte n. top • sily post. on the top of • simzy post. above, over

sorpaz n. tent


tfeziz n. trill (musical)

tov n. snow • tovushfan n. winter

tovovat n. snowdrift

tozman v-cv. seem, give the impression that

toll 1. n. grain (in wood); 2. n. trail (of cloud)

tezir n. death (concept, state) • tezips 1. a. dead; 2. a. bad, rotten, spoiled (food) • tezwet v-io. kill • tezirs v-0. die

tfes n. horn

tonsok n. danger, vulnerability, insecurity

tafa tify 1. v-eo. clap softly, flap around; 2. v-eo. stammer

tahhna a. boring

talava 1. v-do. mix, stir; 2. v-0. daydream

tamporo 1. v-io. forget; 2. v-io. collapse, fall from (IO: power, prominence, legitimacy) • tamporollo v-io. decline, deteriorate in (power, prominence, legitimacy) (S: governments, people, status)

tanga 1. v-io. impress; 2. v-io. make proud

tanjo v-do. understand, comprehend • tanjoza v-do. explain, clarify to someone (DO)

tano 1. v-do. drop; 2. v-do,io. toss, throw (something soft, a short distance); 3. v-do. knead

tano teny v-eo. thud

tanpo tanpo v-eo. go bang

tantro v-do. have, own, possess • tantrogla 1. v-do. keep, hold on to; 2. v-do. value (something that one has); 3. a. stingy • tantroglaho a. private, personal

targa 1. n. soldier; 2. n. army

tarso 1. v-do. get, receive (passively) (generally positive); 2. v-do. receive unexpected visit from [trunc. tantrorso]

tashara 1. v-do. cut; 2. v-do. cut down, chop down (tree); 3. v-do. alter, adjust; 4. v-do. distinguish between, separate; 5. v-do. determine, figure out, tell

taso n. steel

tavla n. upper arm

te1 post. indicates possession

te2 v-do. (positive) create, make, form; n. (positive) creator, maker • tegly v-do. (positive) build, make, form, construct (with planning and purpose)

tege v-io. take advice from, heed, listen to

tegy v-0. fly (S: insects)

tehllety v-sv. often, frequently

tehny n. unity, togetherness • tehnily a. united, unified, together, joint • tehnilyrse v-io. join, unite with (long-term or permanently) • tehnilizy 1. v-do,io. unify, unite, bring together, conflate, join; 2. v-do,io. (colloquial) give

tehy n. coast, beach

tejy n. love (romantic) • tejishhe v-io. be in love with, be enamored of • tejishherse v-io. fall in love with

tehhite n. handful

tele 1. n. foot; ~ she seriously, solemnly; 2. n. (archaic) anchor; 3. n. negative consequence, tradeoff (esp. unexpected); 4. n. peninsula • telefe v-0. drop anchor • telehie n. shoe

telte 1. a. whole, entire; 2. a. all, each, every (in plural) • teltekse n. nature, natural order • telteksekshe n. miracle (for good or ill), Act of God

temy v-0. cry

tene a., n. one (humans)

tenky 1. v-do. pick, collect, gather (fruit; off of plant); 2. v-do. pick through, sift through, go through; 3. v-do. paddle, row (DO: water) • tenkimne n. pole for picking fruit

teny 1. v-do,io. say, tell, state, relay, relate (DO: type of information told, or direct quote): shegvizge teninemyf ‘tell me the weather’; 2. v-do. produce, lead to, attract: skek nezgikel izek tenishken ‘these fruits are going to attract flies’

tezry a. astringent

teshe n. tense (grammar)

teshpe n. sharp jabbing pains, pangs • teshpepse v-0. suffer sharp jabbing pains, pangs

tevesy v-do,io. discuss (with)

tevy v-do. leave to grow or progess unchecked (plants, hair, problems) • tevihe a. overgrown, wild, out of hand [inv. tova]

tezy n. navel, belly button

tfato 1. n. difficulty, inconvenience; 2. n. stubbornness; 3. n. discomfort • tfatopso 1. a. difficult, hard, inconvenient; 2. a. stubborn; 3. a. uncomfortable, inhospitable • tfatoshho 1. v-io. struggle with, try to deal with; 2. v-0. be neglected [inv. tfite]

tfato tfite v-eo,cv. stubbornly, persistently

tfe n. line, row

tfihle v-0. wither

tfite 1. n. ease, easiness, convenience; 2. n. acquiescence, compliance; 3. n. comfort • tfitepse 1. a. easy, convenient; 2. a. acquiescent, compliant, yielding; 3. a. comfortable

tfumu 1. n. surrounding ring, petals, frill, crown; 2. n. reverberation, repercussions, effects • tfumuka 1. n. petal; 2. n. effect, repercussion • tfumulio n. secondary quality or meaning, connotation

tihhny a. exciting

tilge 1. n. dew; 2. n. puddle

timpere v-io. remember, recall, think of [inv. tamporo]

tio post. at the front or back of • tiola post. on the front or back (direction) of • tiolto n. front or back (side) • tiomzo post. somewhere to the front or back of

tire 1. n. ambition; 2. n. lust • tirepse 1. v-io. have ambition for; 2. v-io. lust after; 3. v-io. pull on, tug on

titsty n. state of being revealed, out in the open • titstypse a. revealed • titstyre 1. v-io. reveal, uncover; 2. v-io. divulge, betray (someone’s identity), inform on, give away, tell on [inv. tutsta]

thhezvy n. fool, wretch, poor thing

thhise v-do. realize (suddenly)

thhoshova a. blood red, maroon

tlammo n. smoke • tlammonto n. chimney

tlenle 1. n. body, corpse; 2. n. pushover • tlenlehie n. skin • tlenleste 1. v-do. take advantage of, exploit (person); 2. v-do. overcome, overwhelm, get to: tlenlesteshehesht hhushka ‘He was overcome by exhaustion’

tlova n. frustration • tlovapso a. frustrated

tlusa n. rodent

to n. (negative) creator, maker; v-do. (negative) create, make, form • togla v-do. (negative) build, make, form, construct (with planning and purpose)

tofra n. palm tree (general term)

tofru 1. v-do. betray, commit treason against; a. traitorous, treacherous; 2. a. ironic, perverse; 3. v-io. abandon, desert, leave (IO: dependent people) • tofruswo a. risky, perilous, precarious, dangerous (S: situation)

toho tehy v-eo. make bumping sound

tohwa n. chain (object)

tolo n. unexpected positive consequence [inv. tele]

tolo tele v-eo. pad (manner of walking) [tele]

tolosha v-cv. think so, agree, acknowledge • toloshanur v-0. change one’s mind

tonanga v-do. poison

tonta n. cost, expense, price

torfa n. crab

torga 1. n. tongs; 2. v-do. pinch; 3. v-do. kill (insect)

torjowsa n. arch

torva v-do. play (musical instrument)

tova1 v-do. prune, trim (plant, nails)

tova2 n. starfish

tra a. red

traia n. unit of currency, equal to 100 kupuk

trajut n. (literary) top, apex, summit, crown, crest (esp. of buildings, mountains)

tramulo n. blood • tramuloto v-0. bleed [tra mulol]

tranap n. booger

treg v-do. roast

trizej 1. a. quaint, rustic, unimposing; 2. v-io. scam, dupe, swindle, con, trick

tro post. at all sides of, surrounding • trola post. on all sides of, covering • trolto n. all sides, surroundings • troltolio n. shelter, cover • tromzo post. somewhere surrounding

trojo treje v-eo. have had it up to here

troru n. hook

tsa 1. n. wheel; 2. n. cycle

tsalia n. sap

tsara v-io. act together with

tsawa 1. a. particular, in particular, certain, specific; 2. a. neat, orderly

tse i. so?, so what?

tsege n. camel

tselhe n. interjection (grammatical)

tseny 1. c. similar to how, somewhat like how (weaker than melre); 2. post. similar to, somewhat like; 3. c. and in the end

tseny sho c. for example, for

tsesinshy n. ladder [P. tésinsh]

tsezy n. bark (tree)

tsha v-do. tear, rip • tshaho n. tear, rip

tshammo n. scandal

shegilt n. letter (of alphabet) • tshelejjy n. alphabet

tsent n. food • tsent-fe v-do. (flowery) dine, eat • tsent-rme n. cuisine • tsent-re v-io,po. (ho) feed (IO: recipient; PO: food) • tsent-shiy v-io,po. (ho) be fed by (IO: giver; PO: food) • tsent-kselie n. nutrient, vitamin

tshimele n. bread

tshity n. stick

? 1. n. branch; 2. n. cane, staff, walking stick • tshitimmelty n. tree trunk • tshitishky n. twig

tshulha n. mess

tsulssu a. dumb

tshunto n. bone • tshuntosio n. socket

tsiwy a. random, anonymous, stray • tsiwype a. messy, in disarray

tstakkat n. crack

tstahhu n. road

tstengy a., n. zero

tstepy n. conjunction

tstire n. philosophy

tsto n. loneliness • tstopso a. lonely

tstoha v-do. deceive, fool, trick, beguile

tstopia v-0. smirk

tstufra n. filth • tstufrapso a. filthy

tsupo a. rude, offensive (S: people) • tsupolio a. rude, offensive, obscene, vulgar (S: things)

tu post. at the bottom of • tula post. on the bottom of • tuwolt n. bottom, underside • tumzu post. below, beneath, under, underneath

tumma n. beak

tumna 1. c. and ... even, moreover, and what’s more, so much that: wasta-lesh ilhysht tumna uvast hrelesh ‘it was a terrible meal; he even threw up afterwards’; 2. c. but (in cases of major contrast); 3. c. but ... too much (usually used with mele (v.)): kereft hhagma velenent tumna melent velentef ‘I wanted you to add salt but you added too much’

tunaza 1. n. lust; 2. n. devotion, fervor, devoutness

tungu n. medallion

tunva v-do. stomp on

turko n. heart (organ)

tur n. tooth (esp. of person) • turug v-io. bite • turvunt n. gums

turvuh n. plaque

tfanukat v-io. trust

tstav n. hiddenness • tstavav a. hidden • tstavuiz v-do. hide

teggiz n. train (of dress)


ulhlup n. bow (knot)

ushlul n. scene, view, setup, tableau

upassap n. xylophone

umush n. soup • umshug n. bowl

ufto a. pale

ufu n. ant

ugana n. tonsil

ugathho n. hem

ugjo n. need • ugjoho a. necessary • ugjohogla a. crucial, decisive, deciding • ugjopso v-io. need

uhllo n. disaster

uhna 1. a. different; 2. a. foreign; n. foreigner • uhnaka n. difference

ujo n. turn, stage, step (in a sequence)

uhhmarno v-do,io. go on a tirade, rant, rail against (DO: topic; IO: addressee)

ukso n. essence, inner nature, point (of a statement) • uksoka n. attribute, property

ukuta v. grieve, mourn

ula n. group

ulhura v-do. smoke

uljo a. varying, inconstant; v-0. vary

uloma v-do. wash, clean (DO: object, not person)

unhham 1. n. rash; 2. brown, rotting area on food; 3. n. troublemaker, mischief-maker, rascal, imp; 4. n. black sheep

umapo a. temporary

umnala n. bell; v-0. ring

umshaja n. hat

unako v-do. injure, wound, hurt, harm • unakoswo 1. a. dangerous (S: person); 2. a. armed

unha n. muscle, flesh

unlo v-sv. continue, keep (repeating something multiple times) • unlosto v-do. continue, keep up

unpu v-0. 1. blink; 2. flicker, twinkle, glimmer

unpupou a. fatigued, habitually tired [unpu + -pou]

unsago a. funny, humorous

untsa v-do. sell [P. unt]

upa 1. v-0. arrive early, be early; 2. v-io. intercept, waylay

upo n. ridge, rim

upra v-do. shoot (arrow), throw (stone), launch (cannonball) • upraho n. thing shot, ammunition, arrow • uprapllo n. thing shot at, target • uprallwo n. person shot

upu1 n. dance • uputo v-po. (ho) dance

upu2 n. echo

upustsa n. piece of jewelry

urur n. sand • urugaov n. desert

urwa v-io. apologize

ushu1 a. lazy

ushu2 v-io. bail on, abandon [inv. ishy (sense 2)]

uskok 1. a. taut, tense, strung tight; 2. v-io,vs. depend on, rely on; 3. v-do,vc. assume, presume

ustso a. frail

usumu v-do. haunt • usumuho a. haunted

uta n. tool, method

uvuv n. bark (sound) • uvuvut v-0. bark

uivav v-do. vomit, throw up • uivavug n. vomit

uvashonzo n. volcano [uva shenzel]

uvrur v-do. separate: irge hhilje-vy zaiashkotof uvruruft ‘I separated the man and woman who were fighting’

uzma n. quality (level of goodness or badness)

uzwu a. blind (esp. due to old age)

uhum a. empty

unav n. nose

usamhh n. form, version, type, kind • usamhhoks n. specifications, characteristics, details • usaglamhh n. 1. variety; 2. array, display


va1 1. n. elbow; 2. n. corner, bend; 3. n. object with a bend in it

va2 n. curse • vafa v-po. (ho) curse (PO: curse)

vagna n. glory • vagnapso n. glorious • vagnaro v-io. glorify, extol, praise, rhapsodize on

valal n. sloped or pointed roof

vap a. red

vajo n. brown hair • vajopso a. brown-haired [valio iejel]

valahha v-0. dance

valaro n. finger

valio n. wood • valiofo 1. v-0. make something out of wood; 2. v-po. (ho) carve on

valoga n. agitation • valogapso a. agitated • valogaro v-io. agitate, bother

vamga n. silk

vammo n. city [trunc. vatojjammo]

vanpo n. sailor [trunc. vantofopo]

vanto 1. n. ship, boat; 2. v-0. float (in water) • vantofo v-po. (ho) sail • vantonta n. harbor, port • vantoshka n. rowboat, canoe, small boat

vara1 a. obvious, clear

vara2 v-do. spit, spit out; varaso ~ (colloquial) talk rubbish

vara3 n. wolf

varalo n. dirtiness • varalopso a. dirty • varaloro v-io. dirty

varaso 1. n. dirt; 2. n. crumb

vasho1 1. v-0. come; ~ geve kla gather together, gather round, assemble, commune; 2. v-do. follow (something moving); 2. v-sv. think it probable, likely that

vasho2 n. vulture

vant 1. n. house; 2. n. country • vatommo n. mansion • vatommolta n. palace • vatojja n. village, town • vatojjammo n. city

vatso n. family

vava 1. n. (formal; literary) tree; 2. n. large tree • valieg n. bark (tree) • vaommot n. forest

vazolo n. mortar (building material)

vegely n. metal

vele1 1. v-do. move (something other than one’s own body); 2. v-do. get out of the way; 3. v-do. scatter, disperse, strew, sprinkle (objects); 4. v-do. add, put in (to food) • velegle n. replacement; v-do. replace (be a replacement for) • veleglere v-io,po. (ho) replace with (IO: original; PO: replacement)

vele2 n. snout

vele3 n. butterfly

velere n. wool

velete 1. n. always, forever; 2. n. system, arrangement, explanation, how something works • veletepe a. eternal, immortal

velhe n. surface

veliy n. seaweed

veme 1. n. proximity; 2. post. close to, near

vengy post. in front of • vengily post. on the front of • vengimzy post. somewhere to the front of

vereshe n. beginning

very n. transparency (quality) • veripse a. clear, transparent

vese n. hug, embrace • vesete v-0. hug, embrace: ehllik veseteshket ‘the siblings embraced’

veze1 n. cheese

veze2 n. uniqueness • vezepse a. unique

vihhy n. corner

vilegy n. calmness • vilegypse a. calm • vilegyre v-io. calm [inv. valoga]

vilishky n. sometimes

vinne 1. v-0. jump; 2. v-0. (colloquial) boil • vinneshky 1. v-0. hop; 2. v-0. tingle; 3. v-0. take it easy, proceed slowly

vinv n. glass (material)

vire 1. n. lip; 2. n. doorpost

viryle n. cleanliness • virylepse a. clean • virylere v-io. clean [inv. varalo]

virze n. gem, jewel

vive n. kitchen

voja to the other side of, across, through; 2. post. throughout, over

volo n. caterpillar

vomom1 1. n. distance (length between two places); 2. post. far from • vomogva n. refuge

vomo2 a. open • vomosto v-do. open

vona a. long (time) • vonakso n. length of time

vonga post. right behind • vongala post. on the back of • vongamza post. somewhere behind

vorosho1 n. end, conlusion, finish; ~ gly at last, eventually, finally [inv. vereshe]

vorosho2 n. doll

vosa v-do. give trouble, create problems for, give a hard time (S: people): ponsak ehile vosashkot ‘the authorities gave the traveler a hard time’

vovo veve v-eo. buzz

vozosa n. chaos, pandemonium • vozosapso a. chaotic

vukso n. change (money)

vulu v-do. destroy • vuluglo v-do. annihilate, raze • vulushho n. wreckage, destruction, ruins, remains, remnants

vurulasfo n. Vouroudra language

vusho n. occasion, time

vuvo n. bug

vuwla n. scab

vy1 1. c. and, but (where there is no contrast or minor contrast, though not where there is a contradiction, be it real or perceived): liryf vy gele-lash stsofnaf ‘I am hungry and thirsty’, kantsovo emnif vy jomopsosush ‘I like mangoes but she hates them’; 2. c. or (both clauses offered as options): kerem kamonom vy hhommanom? ‘do you want to eat or drink?’

vy2 1. post. in, inside, within; 2. post. among, of, out of (a group); 3. post. in the middle part of, excluding edges, or beginning and endpoint: nofto vish ‘in the middle of the night, during the night (not towards beginning or end)’ • vilte n. inside, interior • viltelye n. feeling, instinct, conviction • vily post. on the inside surface of • vimzy post. somewhere inside

vy farala c. but, though, while (indicates minor contrast; both parts occur at the same time, whether they are ongoing or instantive)

vy hho c. but, though, while (indicates minor contrast; the second part happened while the first was going on, or at a different time)

vyie v-0. frown


wa1 c. or (exclusive)

wa2 v-do. avoid (person, object) [inv. wy]

wa tumna c-sv. or else, lest (second clause must be in subjunctive): ife murazaft wa tumna lele ishynes vato klall ‘I closed the window lest rain fall into the house’

waja v-do. suck on

waju n. bamboo

wahhu n. shin

waluwur n. adder

wamna 1. n. stranger; 2. n. intruder, trespasser, interloper

warga n. sandbar

warzu v-do. chew • warzulho n. chewed food • warzumna n. tooth (esp. of animal) • warzumnashka n. baby tooth

waso v-do. use, employ

wasta a. terrible, horrible, awful

wato n. room (in a building)

watrohllo n. keyhole

watromo n. key (for lock)

wavra n. peach

we1 1. a., n. this, that (used to show contrast); 2. a., n. this!, that! (used to single something out as very significant; usually negative)

we2 c-sv. in order (to, that...); post. for (the purpose of...)

we3 n. star • wegly n. sun • werme n. constellation

we4 n. sheath, knife case [inv. we ‘sword’]

wehy a. correct, right

weiyhh a. tasty, delicious

wekitet v-0. snap (fingers); v-do flick

welie n. soul, spirit • weliezwe a. spiritual

weliy 1. v-do. hold, carry; 2. v-do. raise (DO: child); 3. v-do. keep in check, control; 4. v-io. lean on, rest on, lean against • weliynshe v-do,io. throw

weme n. voice • wemefe 1. v-0. cough; 2. v-0. clear throat

wenhe v-do. stop up, plug, seal

wentry1 v-do. catch (something thrown), take (something handed to one)

wentry2 v-cv. do right, get right (an activity) [inv. wontru]

wevy n. ocean

winjej a. upside-down, turned over • winjejuif v-do. flip upside-down, turn over

wunjoj a. right-side up [inv. winjej] • wunjojuif v-do. turn right-side up [inv. winjej]

wipe v-0. have bad eyesight

wirshy a. deaf

wirze n. time (of day)

wissy v-sv. emphasize, highlight, draw attention to

wizy n. myth

wow n. sword • woshhow n. shield

woha a. incorrect, wrong (S: things) • wohalio n. mistake, accident, error • wohapso a. mistaken, in error, wrong (S: people) • wohasro v-sv. make a mistake, make an error, err (in, with regard to) [inv. wehy]

wola n. spoon

wolha n. coil, spiral

wollpaz n. hide, animal skin

wolia v-do. let go of [inv. weliy]

wontru 1. v-sv. mess up, screw up; 2. v-do,io.: ravlo ~ (literary) attack, make battle, fall upon

wosut n. spear

wowul n. 1. wave; 2. dune;

wowulops a. undulating, rolling [wowul + -Ops]

wullu v-0. hover

wunra v-do. include, contain

wupu n. shadow

wurwuro n. mold, fungus

wuto1 n. mask

wuto2 n. swamp, marsh

wutra n. door

wy1 v-do. look for, search for, seek

wy2 n. blotch


y1 a., n. female • izwe a. feminine, womanly

y2 cl. indicates subject of a verb

yietsy n. (negative) appearance, showing up • yietsyte v-0. (negative) make an appearance, show up


za post. at the right side of • zala post. on the right side of • zalto n. right side • zamza post. somewhere to the right of

zafna a. playful, frisky, mirthful

zaha n. field, plain

zahara n. lion

zaia v-0. fight • zaiashka v-cv. argue over, dispute (whether)

zaju v-do. hypnotize

zahho n. loudness • zahhopso a. loud

zala1 1. a. thick (consistency, density); 2. a. intense, vehement, strong, bold

zala2 n. confusion • zalaro v-io. confuse; mafamna-lak ~ cross eyes • zalashho 1. a. confused; 2. v-sv. be at a loss, be unsure, not know (how to proceed)

zama n. carrot

zaro a. old • zarokso n. age • zarollo v-0. age, grow older

zava 1. v-do. scratch (an itch); 2. v-do. tickle • zavashho n. itch, scratch

ze1 n. value, worth

ze2 post. at the left side of • zelte n. left side • zely post. on the left side of • zemze post. somewhere to the left of

zefe v-0. celebrate, rejoice

zegne 1. n. ground, earth, land; 2. n. background, backdrop, setting (physical)

zejy n. popularity • zejipse a. popular

zeljjy n. sour orange

zelle n. village

zemhe 1. n. amount of weight, heaviness; 2. n. alcohol content • zemhelie n. disciplinary slap, hit, blow, spanking

zemshy v-do. dig

zengeny a. drunk, inebriated, intoxicated

zente 1. v-0. swagger, sway; 2. v-po. (directional post.) jump back and forth (between locations)

zenzy zenzy v-eo. buzz

zerky 1. v-do. be friends with; 2. v-sv. for a long time; 3. v-sv. conscientiously, seriously, earnestly • zerkille v-do. befriend

zeryie n. wish, longing • zeryiepse v-sv. wish, long for

zeriz a. numb • zerizirg v-do. numb

zeret n. sweat • zereteps v-0. sweat

zesh v-0. overflow, spill, flood • zesherg v-do. cause to overflow, spill

zeshky n. story • zeshkire n. storyteller • zeshkirme n. folklore

zez1 1. a. fast, quick; 2. io,sv. one after another, in a row; 3. v-sv. hasten, hurry, quickly • zezirg 1. v-do. startle; 2. v-do. gobble up, wolf down; 3. v-sv. suddenly

zeze2 n. 1. gate; 2. beginning

zijehre n. green saffron

zijy v-io,cv. criticize for, complain about [inv. zuja]

zihhe n. quietness • zihhepse a. quiet [inv. zahho]

zily 1. a. thin (consistency, density), weak (intensity); 2. a. concise, to the point • zililye n. fib, white lie

zime post. far below, far beneath

zirne a. manipulable, gullible, wishy-washy, fickle, inconstant [inv. zurna]

zenniw 1. n. pocket, pouch; 2. n. secret, hidden side; 3. n. small cave

zola n. pomegranate

zomhotsta n. rectangle

zomma n. toenail

zosha n. ember

zosho v-0. remain within one’s limits (S: people, animals, objects) • zoshosto v-do. confine, fence off [inv. zeshe]

zoshu v-do. ruin

zowhhu a. very frustrated due to waiting

zoza n. hips, waist

zozo a. slow

zu1 n. candle • zufo v-po. (ho) light

zu2 post. at the right or left side of • zula post. on the right or left side of • zulto n. right or left side • zumzu post. somewhere to the right or left of

zufa v-io. defy, resist

zuja v-io,cv. compliment on

zuniu 1. v-0. snore; 2. v-sv. be engrossed in

zupsha v-0. hold still, remain in place, be steadfast

zushfar n. bolt, bar (to lock door)

zura n. matter (scientific)

zurna 1. a. mighty, powerful, great; 2. a. fixed, close-minded, stubborn

zwenie n. (positive) relation, relationship, bond, connection, association

zwonio n. (negative) relation, relationship, bond, connection, association

zifels n. part of speech (grammar)