Josh Regev

Ngengenoef-English Dictionary

Introduction   a   e   f   i   k   m   n   ng   o   p   q   r


This is a dictionary of Ngengenoef, a constructed language. ng is treated as a separate letter following n. So for example, konofe precedes kongi.

A number of idiomatic phrases and collocations are listed. For consistency, combinations of verb and object (be it direct, indirect, or postpositional) are always listed with the verb; those of nouns and postpositions with the noun. In these entries, a tilde (~) stands for the head word.

Grammatical specifications

Parts of speech are indicated in italics for each Ngengenoef entry. The following abbreviations are used:

Verbs are further specified for their class (v-1 through v-6, or v-irr for irregular verbs), and transitivity:

When a word has certain irregular forms, they are noted:


Etymologies are given in square brackets. If a source word is given with no language specified, it is from an older form of Ngengenoef.


afoa n. slime, goo, mucus

afoengi n. hibiscus

aie n. dog

aifa n. thunder; v-2. thunder

aike v-1. work

ain n. dirt, dust (on something)

aingoa v-3. be nighttime

air (ai) d. one; d. a

airqo v-3. 1. scratch; 2. try out; 3. propose, suggest, offer, “put on the table”; 4. try for

akakiqāf v-6. stir up, mix, whip up [kiqāf ‘froth’]

akamoeo v-6. complain

akamoqi v-6. swim (to get somewhere), sail

akanengo v-6. give birth to

akangoae v-6. 1. give shade to; 2. cover, enclose [ngoae ‘shade’]

akapōm v-6. chase away, shoo [pōm ‘fly’]

ake v-3. hold, carry

akofō v-irr. give [ ‘hold’]

āmang n. crab

amango n. ear

amī cl. indicates surprise or anger

āmi n. time, occurence, occasion

amomi v-4. be sad

anan v-3. eat

anangi n. insect

anoan n. coffin

anoar v-3 i. bathe

angi v-4. 1. walk; 2. vary

angikoi v-4. 1. walk off, go off course; 2. get lost [angi ‘walk’]

aofòan v-5. 1. be bitter (taste); 2. be venomous

aokeke v-5. understand

aokenen v-5. sigh

aokofon v-5. stop, cease

aokofonokoi v-5. pass away, perish [aokofon ‘stop’]

aomēo v-5. succeed

aomim v-5. give up

aonafe v-5. kill

aonike v-5. catch (following a chase)

aongaif v-5. sneeze

aopoan v-5. be in love, enamored, infatuated

aoqia v-5. spit

apāf v-3. be duplicitous

apān n. neck

aqām v-4. rot, decompose

āqe part. there was/were (imperfective)

aqoa v-3. hit

āqrm part. there was/were not (imperfective)

armo v-2. be red


eanoi v-2. go pale [eang ‘be white’]

eang v-2. be white

efamango v-1. mishear [amango ‘ear’]

efanan v-1. have indigestion [anan ‘eat’]

efiaiqe v-1. 1. faint, collapse; 2. capsize, flip (boat) [iaiqe ‘faint’]

efimai v-1. be dull (blade) [imai ‘be sharp’]

efokakiqāf v-1. misplace, lose [akakiqāf ˈstir up’]

efokamoqi v-1. drown, sink [akamoqi ‘swim’]

efokanengo v-1. miscarry [akanengo ‘give birth’]

efokine v-1. 1. be the wrong amount; 2. be incorrect; 3. be unprepared; 4. be out of the loop [kine ‘number’]

efōko v-1. forget [ōko ‘remember’]

efokomr̄ v-1. go out too quickly (fire) [komr̄ ‘burn’]

efomapi v-1. twist (injure body part) [mapi ‘twist’]

efomoir v-1. 1. not get along well; 2. clash, quarrel [moir ‘meet’]

efoname v-1. have the wrong idea, come to the wrong conclusion [name ‘think’]

efoniŕmir v-1. have a leak, be damaged by rain [niŕmir ‘be rain-proof’]

efoniŕngepang v-1. speak badly [niŕngepang ‘be eloquent’]

efonomāng v-1. shrink [nomāng ‘be small’]

efonapape v-1. be ugly [nopape ‘be beautiful’]

efoqanang v-1. trip (while running) [qanang ‘run’]

efoqenā v-1 i. choke [qenā ‘swallow’]

efoŕkine v-1. 1. miscount; 2. estimate incorrectly [rkine ‘count’]

efoŕmōnga v-1. predict incorrectly [rmōnga ‘stargaze’]

emir n. slave

emòa n. wing

ena v-3 t. push

ene n. cheek

enen n. urine

enoef n. leaf

engef n. friend

engi1 pre. asking

engi2 n. coral

eofīna v-1. trip [fīna ‘dance’]

eofonge v-1. be very ugly [fonge ‘be ugly’]

eoi n. (obl. oenoi) meat

eopae v-1. 1. only stun, only temporarily knock back; 2. startle [pae ‘beat’]

eopapoi v-1. 1. do a bad job cleaning; 2. botch a surgery [papoi ‘clean’]

eqie v. reach, reach out, stretch

eqōf pre. inside [eqōfo ‘bone’]

eqōfo n. bone

eqōfoke n. skeleton [eqōfo ‘bone’]

erno n. king


fa (following consonant if) cl. 1st person plural (inclusive or exclusive), we

faen v-3. 1. tousle; 2. ripple

fai pro. (obl. fāme) 1st person plural exclusive, we, I and they

faiki n. statue

famong v-2. return, come back, come again

fane v-2. be beautiful, pretty (woman)

fanina v-3. yawn

fanòa n. tongue

fanga n. woman

fangi cl. still

fāngo n. spice

faong n. cloud; v-2. be cloudy

faqīn n. axe

fenoeo v-1 t. 1. catch; 2. realize

fenge d. eight

fermang n. stew

fi cl. evidential (hearing) [ ’say’]

1 d. four

2 v-3. say

fiai n. that

fiane n. top

fīn n. mosquito

fīna v-3. dance

fīnake n. dancer [fīna ‘dance’]

fini n. dolphin

fino n. liver

fioe n. light

fioka n. 1. trap; 2. enclosure

fiqanga n. morning

fo v-3. dig, mine

v-irr. hold

foae v-2. 1. drizzle; 2. drool, slobber

foan v-3. slither

foaoŕ n. ghost

fóe n. lungs

fofang n. hair

foka n. rope

fōm n. food

fōn n. cup

fonoa n. ocean, sea

fōnoi v-3. go hoarse, be hoarse [fōng ‘shout’]

fonona n. yam

fōng v-3. yell, shout

fonge v-2. be ugly

frpe v-3. chew

frqem n. banana


ī n. (obl. ingī) volcano

iai v-3 t. bend

iaiain v-4 t. 1. hold down, pin down; 2. concentrate on, focus on

iaiqe v-2 i. stand

iao v-3. laugh

iapo v-3. love (non-romantic)

ifenga n. place, location, spot

īfi n. part, section

īka i. be careful

ikong n. back (of animal)

ikongoa v-3. make, sew clothing [kongoa ‘clothing’]

ikoŕ v-1. join, connect

imai v-1. be sharp (blade)

imenir v-4. declare, pronounce, state

imī n. 1. group, gang; 2. type, class, kind

imiki v-4. shimmer, sparkle, twinkle, flash

imoar n. weak spot, vulnerability

iniā v-1 t. bathe

īnif n. boat

inini c. but, however

inòen v-4. give in, accede, acquiesce, surrender

īnoin v-4. be powerful, be strong

inopa n. brain

inopo v-4. take a risk, take a chance

īngiom n. house

ioe n. grease

ioi n. gully, ditch

īpaqi i. how dare you!

ipename v-3. brainstorm, think of ideas [name ‘think’]

ipoŕ v-2. weave

iqāpr v-irr i. break, crack, split

iqār v-4. take a risk, take a chance

iqòam v-1. sleep over, stay over, spend the night

iqrqr v-3. cut, make bleed [qrqr ˈblood’]

iŕqio v-2. be lazy, be idle


kaer n. house

kaf i. hi, hey [krmafòa]

kafoa n. path, trail, track

kai1 n. field, empty area, plain, clearing

kai2 i. wow!

kaima n. moss

kam cl. 1. as, while, during; 2. as well as

kamange v-3. burrow, dig hole

kamangē v-3. resemble, look like

kan v-irr. 1. take; 2. follow, obey (order, rule); 3. understand, comprehend, follow; 4. have (something done)

kani v-3 t. please

kangan v-3 t. bury, inter

kape pro. (obl. kāpe) 1st person plural inclusive, we, you and I and they

kear n. daytime; v-2. be daytime

kefi1 n. peel

kefi2 v-3. roll up

kefing v-1. lie

kekēi v-2. have a sore throat

kekemē v-3. discuss, deliberate on

kekoef n. tent

keme v-1. beat (heart)

kemī n. strap

kemo v-3. climb

kemrng n. baby

ken v-3. do, cause, make

keneka v-2. be incredible, astounding

kenon n. pig

kenga v-2. intense, strong, vehement

kengēna v-2. complicated

keqe v. be dazzling, splendorous, dazzling

keqo v-1 i. sit

kēqō v-3 t. extinguish

keqr v-3 t. drink

kerm adv. again

kerman n. garden

kìa part. there is/are

kiamr d. seven

kie cl. 1st person dual inclusive, we two, you and I

kifi n. seaweed

kim cl. really, truly, indeed

kin cl. 1. a little; 2. hardly, barely; 3. only, just

kinai adv. little, a little

kinai oŕ circ. without

kinana v-2 t. be picky with regard to

kinang v-3. fly

kine n. number; v-1. number

kìo n. problem

kioi n. (obl. koanoi) spoon

kiqāf n. foam, froth

kirpi cl. on and on

koā v-1. want, wish, desire

kòa n. boy

koaefane v-3 t. look beautiful in, wear well [fane ‘be beautiful’]

koaefo v-3 t. dig, mine for [fo ‘dig’]

koaefōng v-3 t. yell, shout about [fōng ‘shout’]

koaemengi v-3 t. be as tall as [mengi ‘be tall’]

koaena v-3 t. suck

koaenonon v-3 t. be sunny on [nonon ‘be sunny’]

koaepono v-3 t. melt into, dissolve into [pono ‘melt, dissolve’]

koaermōnga v-3 t. gaze at (certain stars) [rmōnga ‘stargaze’]

koaiaingoa v-3 t. be in the dark (no subject; the argument is treated as the object) [aingoa ‘be nighttime’]

koaiemi v-3 i. wilt

koaine n. soil, dirt, ground, earth

koainiŕ n. valley

koaioapa v-3 t. sting [oapa ‘jellyfish’]

koaiomiao v-3 t. be humid for [omiao ‘be humid’]

koake n. candlenut

koamao v-1. hunt

koamao qe circ. in pursuit of, after

koana n. life

koarm n. 1. back (of person); 2. parent

koarn n. song

koe v-3 t. slaughter (animal)

kóema n. thorn, prick, spike

kofefao n. cinnamon

koiman v-3. vomit, throw up

koine n. paint

koinōpo n. fish bone

kokām d. which

koko n. beak

komaka n. betelnut

komangi n. bird

kome n. hook

kōmon v-3. steal

komr̄ v-1. burn

konofe n. shovel

kōnoke n. someone detestable, despicable, horrible, terrible

kongi n. fish

kongoa n. clothes, clothing

kopo v-3. signal (with hand)

koqamon n. eel

koqao adv. where?

koqaoan adv. everywhere [koqao ‘where’]

koqōm n. head

kr c. and (joins noun phrases only)

krm n. mouth

krmafòa i. hello

krmie n. ant

kr̄nā n. claw

krnga v-3. hate, loathe, detest

krpemrpe n. octopus


mafafr n. platform, stand, stage

mai cl. 1. there is/are not; 2. emphatic negation

maike n. joke

māke n. poncho

mangoa v-2. be big

mapi v-1. twist, pivot

maqa v-irr. talk, speak, say

marngi v-1. fear, be afraid that

meke n. surface, top

mekōf n. soup

mēne n. moon

mengi v-2. 1. be tall; 2. be famous

mengo adv. soon

meqin n. (obl. meqanin) fish

merf n. scar

merfi n. sister

mermr n. eyebrow

merongo n. shark

miai v-3. yelp, yell (when startled, shocked)

miao n. swamp

mieko n. girl

mieng d. two

mika v-2. delicate, tender, young

miniko v-3 i. twinkle

minō v-2. be crazy, insane

mingi n. tail

miōno n. orchid

mir1 n. rain; v-2. rain

mir2 v-2. be green

miŕngi n. parrot

mirpo v-3. 1. cock one’s head; 2. dart back and forth

v-irr. 1. build; 2. set up; 3. arrange, put in order; 4. make sense of, interpret

moai part. there is/are not

moain v-1. greet

moake n. wound

moaoa n. wood

moar n. midwife

móefa n. lion

moeni v-1. be young

moi v-irr. 1. give; 2. be of the opinion that, hold; 3. try, attempt

moimoi n. fan

moinge n. fin

moiōn n. roof

moir v-6. meet, assemble, gather

mōkā n. arm

mon1 cl. invites addressee to observe, see how ..., look at...

mon2 v-irr. see

mong v-3. smoke

mōnga n. star

mōngapóer n. 1. astrology, fortune telling; 2. horoscope, fortune, destiny

mōngikinang n. shooting star, comet

mopāi n. dough

moŕai n. reality

morn1 cl. but

morn2 pre. next to, near; c. however, yet, on the other hand

mr cl. away

mrki n. frog

mrma n. mother

mr̄fanina v-1. make sleep, be soporific [fanina ‘yawn’]

mr̄miai v-1. startle, scare, frighten [miai ‘yelp’]

mr̄mōnga v-1. cause to wonder [rmōnga ‘stargaze’]

mr̄n n. nose

mr̄name v-1. be thought-provoking [name ‘think’]

mr̄naon v-1 t. create, do, set into motion, cause to happen (negative connotation) [naon ‘be’]

mrnif n. rat

mr̄niŕanan v-1. season [niŕanan ‘be tasty’]

mrōng d. nine

mrpoarn adv. in every way, completely [mrpr ‘how’]

mrpr adv. how?

mr̄qanāng v-1. chase, pursue [qanāng ‘run’]

mrqanānoi v-1. 1. be absent, missing, gone; 2. be scarce, rare

mr̄qoei v-1. make a hole in, puncture [qoei ‘hole’]


na cl. (after /n/ a, after other consonant an) 2nd person singular/dual/plural, you

naiko n. fruit

nakr pro. (obl. nakrng) 2nd person dual, you two

name v-1. think

namepóer n. thought, philosophy, problem-solving [name ‘think’]

nan pro. (obl. nr̄) 2nd person singular, you

nanaqi n. taro

nanga pro. (obl. nāme) 2nd person plural, you all

nao part. declarative non-past

naon v-irr. be

nefofo n. cyclone

nekr d. ten

nemoar n. duck

nenginofo n. mango

nepr v-1. pull

neqi n. coconut

nieni n. cold

niepon n. triangle

nier n. flower

nike n. word

nīke n. daughter

nikef n. stomach

niki v-3. chirp

nikoamao n. hunting party [koamao ‘hunt’]

nim d. six

nima n. sand

ninikef n. 1. digestive system; 2. intestines [nikef ‘stomach’]

ninoīn v-2 i. be strange, odd, peculiar, queer

niŕamango v-2 i. be worth hearing about, interesting; n. hot news, gossip [amango ‘ear’]

niŕanan v-2 i. be tasty [anan ‘eat’]

niŕaonike v-2 i. be worth hunting [aonike ‘catch’]

niŕefoqenā v-2 i. be too talkative, be too long-winded, need to shut up [efoqenā ‘choke’ < qenā ‘swallow’]

niŕemir v-2 i. be worthless, or poor quality [emir ‘slave’]

niŕfōng v-2 i. be incredible, astounding [fōng ‘shout’]

niŕfonoa v-2 i. 1. be seaworthy (vessel); 2. be a good swimmer [fonoa ‘sea’]

niŕifenga v-2 i. be well-placed, be well-situated [ifenga ‘place’]

niŕkoamao v-2 i. be a good hunter [koamao ‘hunt’]

niŕkomr̄ n. fuel, combustible material [komr̄ ‘burn’]

niŕmēne v-2 i. 1. be secret; 2. be delicate, elegant [mēne ‘moon’]

niŕmengi v-2 i. be worthy of fame, heroic, valiant [mengi ‘be famous’]

niŕmir v-2 i. be rain-proof [mir ‘rain’]

niŕmrma v-2 i. be a good mother [mrma ‘mother’]

nirn v-irr. speak a foreign language

niŕn n. 1. attempt, try; 2. practice, test

niŕname v-2 i. 1. be smart, wise; 2. be worth thinking about [name ‘think’]

niŕnengo v-2 i. be pregnant [nengo ‘baby’]

niŕnoane v-2 i. be undercooked, hard (food) [noane ‘tooth’]

niŕnoi v-2 i. be fertile, good planting area [noi ‘sapling’]

niŕnoko v-2 i. be storm-proof [earlier ‘honorable’ < noko ‘honor’]

niŕnokoa v-2 i. 1. be worthy of retelling; 2. be exposed (information) [nokoa ‘sun’]

niŕnomer v-2 i. be beautiful [nomer ‘pearl’]

niŕnrfr v-2 i. be fast, swift-footed; n. runner, messenger [nrfr ‘foot’]

niŕngepang v-2 i. be eloquent, articulate [ngepang ‘language’]

niŕngoae v-2 i. 1. be shameful, embarrassing; 2. be hidden, covered up (information) [ngoae ‘shadow’]

niŕokīn v-2 i. 1. have a good reason behind it, be justified; 2. be complicated, involved [okīn ‘why’]

niŕokīnepō v-2 i. have as a reason that...

niŕomimóer n. value, importance (of a person) [omimóer ‘personhood, humanity’]

niŕomīng v-2 i. be someone [omīng ‘who’]

niŕopar v-2 i. be something [opar ‘what’]

niŕoparpóer n. value, importance (of a thing) [oparpóer ‘identity’]

niŕpaopo v-2 i. be a good father [paopo ‘father’]

niŕperm v-2 i. be eye-catching [perm ‘eye’]

niŕpòa n. planet [pòa ‘sky’]

niŕpoana v-2 i. be respected, respectable [poana ‘name’]

niŕpóer n. engagement

niŕpōm v-2 i. 1. be able to fly; 2. should leave, should get lost [pōm ‘fly’]

niŕpongoi v-2 i. be tired [pongoi ‘sleep’]

niŕpono v-2 i. 1. be meltable, be soluble; 2. be fragile, delicate, precarious, unsound [pono ‘melt’]

niŕqanang v-2 i. 1. be urgent; 2. be rushed [qanang ‘run’]

no c. and (joins verb phrases and sentences)

pre. above

noane n. tooth

noaōeke n. arrow [ōeke ‘shoot’]

noaqāper n. family line, clan

noaqenā n. throat [qenā ‘swallow’]

nóe v-4. be deep

nōe n. son

nōefeng n. forehead

nóefi n. pond

nóeko n. egg

noeni n. 1. inspiration; 2. idea

noenga n. wild beast

noeo n. comb

nóepi n. pandanus

nofa pro. (obl. nōfa) 1st person dual inclusive, we two, you and I

noi n. sapling

noir1 post. before

noir2 n. mushroom

nokā n. starfish

noki n. pigeon

noko n. honor, pride

nokoa n. sun

nōm n. wave

nomāng v-2. be small

nomer n. pearl

nōmopóer n. uneasiness, unrest [nōm ‘wave’]

nonon v-2 i. be sunny

nong n. tree

nōng pre. on, touching, against [nōngi ‘face’]

nongam n. fern

nōngi n. face

nopape v. be beautiful, pretty

nōpe n. door

noqo v-2. be clear, transparent, translucent

nor n. smoke

nrfr n. 1. leg, foot; 2. bottom; koamao ~ qe all the way; pre. under, at the bottom of

nrmike v-2. be handsome (man)


ngae ngae d. this (near speaker)

ngaenge v-1. grasp, grip, grab, cling to, hold tight

ngai part. declarative, past evidential (inference)

ngaioa v-irr. destroy

ngangōm n. coconut milk

ngefing n. brambles, brush

ngefo n. quarry, mine [fo ‘dig’]

ngeko n. shrimp

ngenoef v-2. speak in Ngengenoef

ngengenoef n. Ngengenoef language [ngenoef ‘speak Ngengenoef’]

ngepang n. language (a language; not the general concept)

ngepangipóer n. language (general, concept) [ngepang ‘language’]

ngike v-3. wonder

ngime v-1. be alive, live

ngimef v-3. mock

nginge n. talon

ngingi n. baby

ngipi v-3. throw

ngoae n. 1. shade, shadow; 2. ~(obl.) fiqanga before morning

ngòaf part. declarative, imm. past

ngofi v-3. sing

ngoipē n. breadfruit

ngomangoma n. lobster

ngon n. fly

ngone n. 1. joint, knuckle, elbow, knee; 2. bend, corner, angle; 3. turning point

ngōnga v-3. cut apart

ngōngakoi v-3. ruin [ngōnga ‘cut apart’]

ngongan n. basalt

ngor n. agony, anguish, suffering

ngoŕn (obl. ongoŕn) n. partner

ngr̄ n. body

ngrfoŕ n. handle

ngrn n. level, height

ngrnao v-3. 1. dismantle, take apart; 2. do damage


o1 cl. (after vowel ’f) 3S, he/she/it

o2 post. (after vowel fo) at, in

ō pro. (obl. nef) 3rd person singular (human only), he, she

òa n. proposal, request, offer

oae n. rectangle

oairn v-4. brush dirt off, dust [ain ‘dirt, dust’]

oamāpeqe n. claw

oamoan n. blanket

oan cl. 1. all (transitive); 2. the most (intransitive)

oananan v-3 i. eat a lot, gorge oneself, stuff oneself, pig out, eat it all up [anan ‘eat’]

oapa n. jellyfish

oar oar d. this (touching speaker)

oarfoka v-4 t. tie (a knot) [foka ‘rope’]

oarkafoa v-4 t. clear overgrown trail [kafoa ‘trail’]

oarkakem v-4 t. tidy, put in order, clean up [rkakem ‘mess’]

oarmiŕ v-4 i. shave

oarmoake v-4. dress a wound [moake ‘wound’]

oarponoe n. add kindling to fire [ponoe ‘fire’]

oei n. sprout, shoot

ōeke v-1. shoot

oeon v-1. extract, take out of, remove from inside

oerqa v-2. be smooth

ofaka adv. how much/many (times)?

oka n. gill

okā v-. interrupt

okīn adv. why?

okō n. root

ōko v. remember

okoef n. animal

ōkr pro. (obl. ōkrng) 3rd person dual (human only), they two

om om adv. so much

omem n. beard

omiao v-3. be humid, muggy [miao ‘swamp’]

omīmóer n. 1. identity (of a person); 2. personhood, humanity [omīng ‘who’]

omīng n. who?

omīngoan n. everyone [omīng ‘who’]

on n. feather

ōne n. nostril

onō n. basket

onofōm v-3. provide food for, feed [fōm ‘food’]

onoi v-4. give a speech, speak

onoke v-4. stop raining

onomarnoē n. whirlpool

ōnome n. adze

ononame v-3. think over, consider [name ‘think’]

onongoa v-3. be dressed [kongoa ‘clothing’]

onongr̄ v-3. heal [ngr̄ ‘body’]

onongr̄ke n. healer, doctor [ngr̄ ‘body’]

onōpe v-1. be confused

ōngam v-3. harm, hurt, offend

ōngi n. scale (on fish)

ongof adv. when?

ongofoan adv. always [ongof ‘when’]

ōngoi v-2 t. choke

opān v-2. be dangerous

opar n. what?

oparoan n. everything [opar ‘what’]

oparpóer n. identity (of a thing) [opar ‘what’]

ōpe n. love

ōpeme qe v-2. fall in love with

opi v-3. jump

opīno v-4. say goodbye

opòa v-4. terrify, horrify, mortify, scare, frighten

opo v-3. lick

oqe cl. turn out, end up

oqō1 v-1. cough

oqō2 n. plate, bowl

oqō3 n. ulcer

post. with

oŕna n. braid

oŕnoir n. speech (formal event) [onoir ‘give a speech’]


pae v-1. beat, hit

paekoi v-1. knock unconscious

paen n. grilled meat

pafī n. voice

pāfin n. silver

pafo n. obsidian

pai n. water

paiki n. story

paiko n. hand; d. five

paing n. that (far away)

paioan n. the distant sea [pai ‘water’]

paīpo n. shoe

pair pair d. that (far away)

pairn v-3. be sick

pakame v-3. kick

pakoa n. tune, ditty

pan pan d. that

panīf n. line

panoef v-2. be hazy

panoefikoi v-2. fade away [panoef ‘be hazy’]

panoen v-3. slurp

pao pro. (obl. pōme) 3rd person dual or plural (human only), they; cl. (after syllable with /p/ ’ao, after syllable with /ao/ po) 3rd person dual or plural (human only); they

paopo n. father

papoi v-3. clean, wash

parengi n. grass

pememeng n. fermented beverage

pēn n. short trip

pename n. idea, thought, conclusion [name ‘think’]

peno n. shoulder

penoi n. cave

pepoe n. stick

perm n. 1. eye; 2. window

permoi v-3. show off

pīmī n. scab

pior v-1. 2. pluck, pick, pull off, pull out, remove; 2. pinch

po part. declarative past

v-3. dig

pòa n. sky

poai cl. 1. mistakenly; 2. indicates complaint; adv. apparently, seemingly

poam n. black, blackness

poama n. stain

poamam n. rat

poan n. rock

poana n. name

poao n. circle

poaoan n. upper reaches of the sky, stratosphere, outer space [pòa ‘sky’]

poaomēo v-3. challenge [aomēo ‘succeed’]

poarfonoa v-3. take swimming (children) [fonoa ‘swim’]

poarnoko v-3. honor, make proud

poē v-3. 1. trim, cut; 2. tailor (clothing); 3. trick, fool

póefe n. lips

poen n. this (near speaker)

poengi n. brother

pōm v-1. fly

poma v-2. slash, slit

pomapā v-2. be steep

pōn v-1. die

pono v-3. melt, dissolve

ponòa n. turtle

ponoe n. fire

ponoer v-2. be flat

ponōng v-2. be yellow

ponor n. stilt, post, column, support

pongoi v-irr. sleep

pongoipóer n. 1. dream; 2. rest [pongoi ‘sleep’]

pongr d. three

popone n. outrigger

poqē n. tree

porfe n. mud

porm n. thread

pr̄ v-1. anger, enrage

pr pro. (obl. prng) 1st person singular, I; cl. (after consonant ’r) 1st person singular, I

prnoar v-3. chop down (tree), pull out (plant), uproot

prpr n. flint


qa (aq) cl. there is/are

qaenō n. worm

qai1 cl. 1. go and ... ; 2. indicates intensity

qai2 n. world

qain v-3. pluck, defeather

qaioan adv. forever [qai ‘world’]

qaīqi n. seagull

qan v-1. plant

qanāng v-3. run

qanipóer n. gardening, horticulture, planting [qan ‘plant’]

qanōn n. monkey

qaqe n. 1. nail; 2. shell

qe post. to, for

qēm v-1. fall

qemeng n. lizard

qemiki n. bat (animal)

qemō n. 1. man; 2. person

qenā v-1. swallow

qenenamekē n. wise person, sage, philosopher [name ‘think’]

qenengenoef v-2. know, be able to speak Ngengenoef

qermē v-2 i. be blue

qīn1 n. ladle

qīn2 v-3. offend, insult

qine n. anger

qīni v-3 i. crawl

qioi n. (obl. qoanoi) knife

1 pre. after

2 n. air; v-2 i. be windy

3 post. from, of [ ‘after’]

qòa n. animal

qoanam v-3. be funny

qoaoa v-1. laugh

qoar adv. not

qóe v-3 t. put up, erect, stand up

qoei n. hole (in object)

qoeof v-5. cook

qoeoqō n. pot [qoeof oqō ‘cooking bowl’]

qoeqo v-3. be dense (forest)

qofoe v-3. argue

qòi n. tree stump

qoiair n. monument

qōm qe circ. especially for

qon cl. here (direction)

qōn n. bubble

qōpe v-3. arrive

qōpō n. rigor mortis

qōqām n. bark (of tree)

qormei n. seed, pit, stone

qormō n. entrance

qr̄ v-3 t. shave

qrfe n. chin

qr̄m n. community

qrne n. edge

qrqr n. blood


rfoan n. snake [foan ‘slither’]

rfonoa v-3 i. swim (for pleasure), enjoy the water [fonoa ‘sea’]

rkaf v-3 i. feel guilty

rkakem n. mess, disorder, jumble

rkakepóer n. chaos, disarray, disorder [rkakem ‘mess’]

rkakenef n. knot

rkefi n. melody

r̄ki n. this (touching speaker)

rkine v-3 t. count

rkomangr n. bird’s nest [komangi ‘bird’]

rmapr n. ankle [mapi ‘twist, pivot’]

rmoar v-2 t. tear, rip

rmōnga v-3 i. stargaze [mōnga ‘star’]

rname n. creases on forehead [name ‘think’]

rngafr n. opera

rnin n. finger

rnoko v-3. be honored, proud

rnoŕ n. garnish

rpenoir n. hiding place [penoi ‘cave’]

rpoar v-4. regret, rue

rpope v-3 t. be entitled to, deserve

rqēqin n. blanket

rqior v-2 i. be poisonous, be venemous

rqioerpō v-2 i. sting

rqrqr n. cut, scratch (on skin) [qrqr ‘blood’]