Pasgemanh-English Dictionary

Introduction   a   b   d   dh   e   f   g   h   hw   i   k   l   m   n   o   p   r   s   sh   t   u   w   y

Introduction

Arrangement

The Pasgemanh words in this dictionary are arranged according to the English alphabetical order, with a few exceptions. dh, hw, and sh are treated as separate letters occuring after d, h, and s, respectively, so that, e.g., bâsnak comes before bàsh. Tone is ignored except where it is the sole differentiator in a set of words; then the order is: low (unmarked), high (¯), rising (´), falling (`). The words are shown in their underlying form, so many of them would not be pronounced or written as they appear here. See the Phonology section of the grammar for details.

Grammatical Specifications

Parts of speech are indicated (in parantheses) for each Pasgemanh word. The following abbreviations are used:

adj adjective
adv adverb
conj conjunction
int interjection
na animate noun
ni inanimate noun
nm mixed noun
nv variable noun
-i makes use of the incorporative possessive structure
v verb
-# indicates verb class
-irr irregular
Definitions
Etymologies

a

âbal v-7. live

âbe int. hello, hi, welcome, greetings

abris ni. pattern

adhlôr ni. garden

adhlûm ni. plant

âgah v-7. hate

âgal v-7. be terrible, awful

agil na. that, those (distant, visible; only referring to animate nouns)

àm ni. river, stream, brook

amfa ni. rash

âmnuh ni., v-5. drink

àmomâ ni. flood

ámòwa na-i. mouth

àmp v-1. lie

àms ni. truth, fact; v-1. tell the truth

àmsàms adv. truly, truthfully, really

ánsh v-1. realize, notice

ànsh nv. whole, entire

ap na-i. face

arỳ na-i. stem

arỳ-nar adj. thin, slim, narrow

ás ni. that, those (not visible; only referring to inanimate nouns)

âsraw v-5. spit

áshbur v-6. be primal, early, ancient, original

âshír v-7. prefer

âteps ni. building

âw int. oh, ah

awes na. earthquake

b

bâdesh ni. 1. cliff; 2. prime, peak, heyday

bâgy na-i. chin

bâhàp v-7. 1. multiply, increase, add; 2. expound, elaborate

bâhósh v-7. hallucinate

bâkr-wal v-10. 1. be pure, unadulterated; 2. be unique

bal v-2. manipulate (mentally)

banèsh na-i. width, span

bânra na-i. shoulder

bar v-2. count

bàr1 ni. number

bàr2 v-2. yell, shout

báràg v-7. complain, protest

barèn v-7. pink

bâsin ni. rule, law

bâsmos v-5. punish

bâsnak ni. flute

bàsh v-2. swing, rock, vacillate

bàshbàsh adv. back and forth, to and fro

bàshbàshal nm. fickleness

bedók ni. cloth

bel nm. step, stair, staircase

bêl ni. smoke

bér ni. oar, paddle

besraw v-5. 1. throw; 2. admit, confess

beshý ni. ground, floor

bêta ni. covering, lid

blih-gim adj. under

blob ni. territory, property

blúr v-6. 1. squeeze; 2. shrug

bok ni. vomit

bokraw v-5. vomit, throw up

bolal v-8. manipulate (physically)

brùl ni. juice, sap (edible)

brùlnuh v-5. juice, collect sap

bûbe nm. egg

bûdo na-i. neck, throat

bùr ni. milk

bûsùr ni. chaos, confusion

bûshà ni. time period

bŷdok ni. collar

bŷsruk v-6. 1. waste; 2. act foolishly

d

dâbash v-7. can, be able to (in terms of own ability, not permission), enable, succeed

dâh v-2. tie

dâhàn na. ocean, sea

dak v-irr. be, become, cause, make

dák v-3. 1. lean, tilt; 2. come to an end, go down (said of day, or sun in final hours of the day)

dákmos v-5. knock off balance

dàp v-2. 1. jump; 2. tumble

dar ni. mud

daresh v-7. buy

das, daso na-i. breast

dehòsh ni. orange

délnam v-10. depress, be depressed

dìm ni-i. room (in a building), chamber

dîme na-i. brother

dirib v-9. grow, enlarge, rise

dlagá na-i. (pl. dleg) 1. child, offspring; 2. effect, result, product

dlàm nm. disgrace, dishonor, shame

dláwgù na. generation

dledhy ni. tranquility, serenity, calm

dlep ni. knife

dlob ni. air

dlòp adv. soon

dlòw na. that, those (not visible; only referring to animate nouns)

dlup v-6. 1. rotate, turn, spin, roll; 2. squirm; 3. change, advance to next phase in cycle

dlur ni. 1. hook; 2. claw

dlùsh v-3. shoo, scurry away

do na-i. baby, infant

dobu ni. steam

dôhgar v-8. 1. be quiet, relaxed; 2. settle down

dòl ni. moon

dôlam v-8. crash

dòldòl adv. distantly, indirectly, without caring

dòm na. that, those (visible; only referring to animate nouns)

dômpur na-i. treetop

domshêp v-10. be big, large, giant

dop ni. gift, present

dóp v-irr. get, receive (without much effort)

dor ni. blister

dôr ni. bridge

dòr ni. rice dumpling

dórfàmp v-10. 1. be wicked, evil; 2. be difficult; 3. be treacherous, dangerous

dos ni. basket

dòs ni. slope

dôs-nar adj. straight

drás adv. how?

drehwum v-irr. avenge, take revenge

drî nv. which?

dril na. other (instead of) (only referring to animate nouns)

drók ni. world, planet

drus v-6. press, push

drym na-i. wrist

drỳnt ni. gook that accumulates in corners of eye

dûlým ni. hill

dum ni. idea

dùmnár v-10. stick, attach

dùr ni. corner

dŷbú ni. dust, dirt

dh

dhâga adv. loudly, noisily

dhàhmos v-5. deface, vandalize

dhal na. small bird sp.

dhala ni. pomegranate [K. zola]

dhàm v-2. hug, embrace

dhap ni. paint

dhapès v-7. deliver, ship

dhar v-irr. swim

dhas v-2. lock, seal, bind

dhàs v-2. drag, scrape

dhasmos v-5. tie up (person or animal)

dhegàr v-7. protect, prevent

dheges v-7. 1. walk downhill, descend; 2. grieve, mourn

dhendor v-10. stretch

dheshly ni. sour orange [K. zeljjy]

dhidhidh v-9. buzz

dhishik v-9. grow, sprout (plants)

dhlînmer ni. (pl. dhlénym) fruit, vegetable, produce

dhó ni. shore, beach, bank

dhòdr na-i. (pl. dhédr) ancestor

dhofâsh v-8. explain

dhol na. insect, bug

dhomar v-8. eat (a lot)

dhonidh ni. garlic

dhrep na-i. tree trunk, log

dhrep-nar adj. 1. fat, wide; 2. rich (culinary)

dhu ni. scab

dhum nm. song (esp. long, epic)

dhúrỳl na-i. knee

dhush na-i. wrinkle

dhŷmmos1 v-5. 1. touch; 2. adjust; 3. catch up; 4. (in negative form) dislike

dhŷnmos v-5. knock unconscious

dhŷnraw v-5. be conscious, awake

dhŷnsy v-5. be in a trance, entrance

e

ebrà v-irr. 1. pull, push, tug, force, move; 2. spread

èdrol ni. light, sun

èdruk v-6. 1. cut, slice, split, halve, spread, fold, bend; 2. change; 3. distribute, share, be generous (with regard to...)

êgal v-7. serve

ek na. lizard sp.

eksêgawgiw ni. walnut [kêsgaw ‘be gnarled’]

èm nm. gesture; ~ tòksy make a gesture

èmh v-1. beg, threaten, repeatedly accost

èmsh v-1. hear

enàdu ni. tower

endỳr na-i. ankle

epàk ni. plate

eps v-1. 1. disappear, vanish, remove, take off; 2. insert; 3. overshadow, outweigh

epsŷ na. dog

èr ni. sun

esap ni. seaweed sp.

esgal na. that, those (distant, not visible; only referring to animate nouns)

ewâr nm. 1. ray, light; 2. feeling; 3. personality; v-7. shine, gleam

f

fa1 conj. if

fa2 int. no (response to statement or question of fact); v-irr. not be, become

fâbal na-i. parent

fadr na-i. (pl. fédr) woman, lady, wife

fál adv. later

fàl v-2. cry

fam v-2. bathe, wash, clean

fàmp ni. lie, falsehood

fámpe ni. adventure, escapade, exploits

fànfamp v-10. curl

fâny ni. lake, pond

far v-3. be sad, sadden

fàr1 ni.space, room

fàr2 v-5. blow (air)

farsy v-5. look sad

fary ni. lychee

fas-pe adj. short, low

fash, fashe ni. language

fashas v-7. be gentle, considerate, kindly

fashmos v-5. 1. translate, adapt; 2. renovate

fátàh v-7. lose, fail

fendir v-7. dig up, exhume

feps ni. sawdust, dust that comes off any object when cutting, polishing

fes ni. other (instead of) (only referring to inanimate nouns)

fìs na-i. eyelash

nm. blowing, breeze

fòh nv. look, appearance

fôhat v-8. sigh

fómp, fômpe na-i. body

fora na. bladder

fòraw v-5. urinate

fòwer v-8. kiss

ful na-i. eyelash

fùl ni. accuracy

fulê ni. 1. column, tall thing, tree; 2. spine, backbone

fum nv. piece, drop, section, segment

fúr nm. breath

fúrraw v-5. breathe

fúrsy v-5. murmur

fy v-irr. dream

nm. dream

fydhluh v-5. be overcast

g

gáf nm. movement; v-irr. 1. move (change position), budge; 2. attack, lunge, burst

gáfgáf nm. trembling, shaking

gáfmos v-5. 1. try, attempt to do something; 2. pick up; 3. fail, do poorly; 4. pass over quickly, abandon with little thought

gàf-nar adj. wavy

gâfỳ ni. 1. bone, skeleton (when plural); 2. pit, stone (of fruit)

gahda ni. lemon [K. gahta]

gàkraw v-5. defy

gal v-2. 1. copy, emulate, imitate, follow; 2. repeat

gàl na. other (in addition, separate from) (reffering only to animate nouns)

galîl ni. carambola, star fruit

gam ni. burp

gammos v-5. burp

gamwa ni. metal

gâmy ni. land

gánlap ni. poison, venom

gánmos v-5. poison

gàpraw v-5. dip, spoon out

gàprinsh ni. spoon

gàr nv. more

gasy adv, ni. now, right now

gàsh1 na-i. beak

gàsh2 v-2. leap

gedek ni. temple

gelà ni. heaven, sky, top

gelehe ni. olive [K. gelehie]

gelnas v-10. be tall, high

gèl-ùsh adj. from, down from (directional)

gêr na. guest

ges v-3. make an error, mistake

geweh v-7. believe, consider

conj. though, although

gîndes v-10. sting

giwgesh na. fruit

gobŷde na. elder

gom ni. herb

góp nv. back (of object)

gôsne v-irr. 1. be funny, witty, silly; 2. be interesting

góshàm v-8. comfort

gosh-dàr adj. frozen

gowaw na. spark

gudshuk v-6b. prostate oneself, kowtow

gul na. bud

gumèsh ni. sound

gúnsh ni. custom

gurgal v-10. be purple

gútỳp na. wizard, mage, magician

guwàp na-i. toe

gy-gy adj. or, possibly

gyl na-i. fist

gyl-émŷs adj. blue

gylnuh v-5. grab, snatch

h

habshar v-10. be bitter

hàdú ni. 1. blanket, sheet, coat, cloak; 2. bowl, cup; 3. covering, container

hâgek v-7. love

hàluw na. spirit, soul

hamam v-7. hunt

hàp int. ouch!

hár adv. later, in the future; ni. future

hàr v-2. 1. come, approach, bring; 2. spill, drop

hares v-7. sag, droop

hàrhàr adv. all at once, in a big way, suddenly, going all out

haru-sgú adj. 1. empty; 2. distant

hasadh v-7. tire of

hbar ni. infection

hbò ni. thunder

hbu ni. shadow

hbyr na-i. girl, daughter

hèk ni. fang

hênuh v-5. bite, chew

hesap v-7. climb down, descend

hgul v-6. tarry, delay, be delayed

hgúl v-6. 1. repel, push away; 2. offend

hims ni. 1. hole, pit; 2. bottom; 3. mortar (for grinding)

himsam v-10. be deep

hnumsh nm. leaf, herb

hnúmsh nm. medicine

hòbúh ni. area, land, country

hómbi nm. mask

hôsnus v-6. fly

hufuks na-i. blister

huk ni. insult, slander

hukraw v-5. insult, denigrate, deride, slander, badmouth

hul ni. rope

hursham v-10. 1. be mean, nasty; 2. be hot

husi v-irr. 1. see, look, view; 2. plan

hyber ni. triangle; kohlom ~ equilateral triangle

hŷli ni. twig

hys v-3. forget

hw

hwâshba na. ability, capability, force, strength

hwedha ni. 1. surface; 2. top (of object)

hwep na. blood vessel, vein, artery

hwìp nm. yawn

hwìpraw v-5. yawn

hwlom na-i. eyebrow

hwop v-3. protrude, stick out

hworam v-8. pay attention, worry, care

hwoshdew v-10. be hot-headed, quick-tempered

hwuk v-6. ride

hwul v-6. bury

hwulmos v-5. bury alive

hwùms na. poor, miserable thing, wretch

hwupi na. octopus

hwŷdosh na. enemy

i

ìbre na. fish

îdar v-4. win, beat

ìdli ni. something foreign

îdnuh v-5. dance

ìdnuh1 v-5. mix, spin, twirl

idris nm. shame

îdhal v-4. laugh

îfah na-i. sister

ifek v-4. carve

igáf v-4. 1. change significantly in behavior, attitude, or outlook; 2. (S.) wake up, get up

îgas v-4. may, be allowed to, be able to (in terms of permission from other), allow, let, permit

igásh v-4. decorate, adrom, embellish, enhance, ornament, do eloquently

ikâr v-4. 1. reverse, invert, flip; 2. smack, hit

ikàr v-4. 1. free, release, let go, unhand; 2. wring out; 3. be clear, obvious

ìkó ni. wall, fence

ikùp v-4. sew

ikyr v-4. stab

il ni. scratch, indentation

ilnuh v-5. scratch, indent

ilúm v-4. write

imàs v-4. admit, confess

ím-àms adj. very

îmésh v-4. overtake, get ahead

îmùs v-4. 1. gather, collect, bundle; 2. combine, mix

inem v-4. add, increase

îpash v-4. stir

ir ni. promenade

irek ni. caution

ireksy v-5. act cautiously, carefully

irèm v-4. speak well, eloquently

isb na. pig

isgim ni. that, those (distant, visible; only referring to inanimate nouns)

îsne nm. information, fact, knowledge

ísh nv. few, a few

ishàsh v-8. fit, have room for, be open, available

íshlôr nv. how much/many? [ísh ‘few’ + lor ‘many’]

itan v-4. argue, dispute

itek v-4. be bald

ités v-4. climb up, ascend, rise, raise

itir na-i. body hair (human), fur

iwàh v-4. offer

îwah na-i. nose

k

kàb ni. frustration

kabat na. starfish

kàbraw v-5. frustrate

kabri ni. egg white

kabùr na. bird sp.

kadî na. snake

kâfar ni. fan

kak v-3. be loud, noisy

kàl v-irr. help, aid

kàm v-2. fill

kâmbe ni. thing

kàmsh ni. swamp

kanàn ni. greatness, grandeur, glory

kántôbo ni. mango

kap adv. finally, at last, now

kâp v-3. sit

kár v-3. put two and two together

kàr na. sheep

kârnam v-10. 1. be small, light; 2. be incomplete

kàs v-2. be still, slow, silent

kasara ni. apricot [K. kasara]

kelik na. (pl. kéli) tree

kelum ni. grave, tomb

kéms-òl v-10. be true, faithful

kéms-ras v-10. matter, be significant

kéms-sar v-10. be interesting

ker na. frog

kes ni. spear

kêsgaw v-10. be gnarled

kesir ni. jewelry

kîpra nv. center, middle

kisint na-i. arm

kishir v-9. decide

klum v-6. hang, dangle, suspend

klumf ni. necklace

klúti na. wolf

kôbar v-8. trick, fool

kòf ni. tragedy

kòfmos v-5. bring tragedy upon

koh ni. model, example, display

kohlom v-8c. be perfect

kohly ni. diamond

kôl-shom adj. different, other, distant

kòps int. yes

kòpsy v-5. agree

kopuhi ni. candied fruit

kos nm. precision

kôs v-3. be happy, glad

kôsnam v-10. be content, fine, okay, good, satisfied, satiated

kossy v-5. act with precision

kôssy v-5. look happy

krâga ni. inaccuracy

krêwâ ni. pile

krus v-6. twist, crank

ksà nm. stillness, slowness, silence

ksam ni. (pl. kesym) house, home

ksânnuh v-5. 1. befriend; 2. know well [ksâny ‘friend’]

ksâny na. friend

ksahbe ni. (pl. ksebr) dirge

ksyh, ksôhy na-i. hair (esp. on head)

kùl ni. hilltop; mby kùwlom at the end, finally, at last

kumbu na-i. beard

kusbèsh v-10. be sweet

kyh v-3. bake

kỳmp nv. all, every, each

kýnmos v-5. torment

kyr nv. tip, end

l

nm. seashell

lâbla ni. hail

ládhèr v-7. be shocked, surprised, in disbelief

lagàsh v-7. shave

lah nm. forgiveness

lahraw v-5. forgive

lalwesh v-10. be sour

lâl na. horse

lam ni. horizon

lám ni. preparation, preliminary activity

làm v-2. drip

lambà na-i. cheek

lâmbe ni. nudity

lamek v-7. be cruel, vicious

lâmêk ni. (pl. karatỳ) sword

làmní conj. because

lâmrul v-6. 1. flow, ooze; 2. float, coast, glide, soar

lámsy v-5. prepare

lase-shom adj. innocent

làtem v-7. be merciful

lâwydrá int. never mind, no matter, forget about it; ni. end, ending, finish (chronologically)

lémfym na-i. leaf

lêpsha ni. task, chore, job

ler ni. salt

lerbèsh v-10. be salty

leremp nm. chair, seat

lewmar adv. long ago; v-10. be old

ni. book

limfen v-10. be kind, sweet

lôbas v-8. be furious, enfuriate

lòk ni. turn, corner, bend

lòlak v-8. ramble

lóm v-3. ruin, desecrate, devastate

lop ni. end (not of something physical)

lóp ni. coconut

lor nv. many, a lot, much, lots

los ni. pestle

losmos v-5. pound, grind, crush (food)

lôsmos v-5. invade

lùlak na-i. tongue

lùm ni. day

lumî ni. rambutan

lûmn na-i. vagina

lunmos v-5. vanquish

lúnt ni. word

lŷmfep v-10. 1. be messy, scattered; 2. be unformed; 3. be crazy

lỳmydỳ na-i. (pl. nỳr) finger

m

v-irr. 1. fall; 2. must, need to, have to, be obligated to

madàw ni. honor, source of pride

madur ni-i. door

màh v-2. bring, carry

mâkyl v-7. concentrate, dwell on

málàl v-7. sway, writhe, beat (heart), hit repeatedly

màma adv. unfortunately, sadly

man v-irr. do, use, wear

manûna na. wave

mâp nm. sex

mâpraw v-5. have sex

mar v-2. eat (a little), snack

màr v-2. 1. sing, play (instrument played with mouth); 2. tell (a story), recount

màraf adv. hardly, barely

marag ni. dye

màraps nv. just a little

marati ni. kumquat

mârél, mâréla na. flower

marènt ni. lungs

marî ni. mountain (used more of specific, noteworthy, named ones, esp. in singular)

màri ni. song

màrim na. 1. person; 2. relative (when linked to a possessor)

mâroh-ok adj. orange

maronâ na. cat

mârumik ni. den, lair

mâsâr v-7. 1. scream; 2. shock; 3. pierce

mâshâm v-7. be rude, impolite

mâtár v-7. be busy, occupied

mbàsh nm. eyelid

mbi na. mosquito

mby-wom adj. at (place), on, upon

mêdràsh na. parents, source, creator [mêrû udash]

mêfàl v-7. fear, frighten, scare

mekî na-i. elbow

mél na. flavor

melet v-7. sparkle, glitter, glimmer

mèr nv. (pl. gylym) half

mêrat v-7. live, reside, dwell, inhabit

merêpe na-i. penis

mêrû na-i. father

mes ni. night sky

mesnèsi na. doctor, healer

mesraw v-5. be dark, black

mesh v-3. influence

mèsh na. snake sp.

mih na-i. back of hand

mihmos v-5. punch

mfînsh ni. city

mim adv. here

mìm-émŷs adj. green

mims ni. here

míntàm adv. where?

mir na. kidney

mír nm. nerve, chutzpa

mìr nm. sap (inedible)

mly-nù adj. at (time)

mòbr ni. ruins, remains

mogar v-8. be dizzy

monter ni. timbre

môrash v-7. play, have fun

môsap v-8. wiggle

moshwe ni. soup

mpesy na-i. tribe, people

mrar ni. type, class, category

mu nv. 1. core, essence, nature; 2. beginning, start

mumraw v-5. 1. disguise; 2. cloak

munga ni. illusion, mirage

múr na-i. nail (on finger or toe)

muse nv. none

musgêh v-10. be thick, heavy

mwèk na-i. (pl. mwéks) eye

mwèkmos v-5. gouge out eyes

mydìp na. goat

mýr ni. candle

n

nadhî ni. drum

nâhar-dósh adj. red

nâklas ni. spit, saliva

nâmbe ni. stamina, endurance, perseverence

nând ni. story, tale; ~ [Cons.] gasy news, current events

nap v-2. splash

nàsh v-2. 1. slide, slip; 2. pour

nawer v-7. set, set up, arrange, order

ndêks nm. war

ndem ni. night

ndûsga ni. compliment, praise, acclaim

nèbásh v-7. close, wrap

nèlah v-7. learn, teach

nèl-ek adj. near, close, by

nep v-3. embalm

nepar v-7. distract

nér ni. 1. string, thread, strip of fabric, fringe; 2. list; 3. stripe; v-3. 1. hang on or from a string; 2. list

nerah ni. seaweed

neshgê ni. velvet

neshras v-10. 1. be strong; 2. be important

newàr ni. peace, happiness, pleasantness

nikis v-9. 1. separate, place apart; 2. discern

nîne-ut adj. crooked, warped

nisim v-9. accentuate, draw attention

nlas ni. wingspan, armspan

nlespàr v-10. be beautiful, beautify

nlesperà nm. beauty

nlowum ni. cave

nmỳnt nm. dance

nóbàsh v-8. 1. turn, change direction; 2. switch; 3. leave, depart for a long time; 4. set (sun)

nôdhash v-8. return, come back

nof ni. secret

noh ni. tree sp.

nohas v-8. betray

nohash v-8. lick

nóm v-3. yearn, long, pine

nomp na-i. (pl. némp) man, husband

nonâ ni. start, beginning (chronologically)

nor na. uneasiness, discomfort

nór na-i. skin

nôrgim v-10. be smart, intelligent

normos v-5. beat up

norraw v-5. be uncomfortable, uneasy

nòs ni. be jealous

noweh v-7. whisper

nry nv. clump

ntêlû ni. clay, mud

ntemp ni. star

núfi nv. layer

nufus ni. district, area

núm na. monster, menace

nùme ni. melody, tune

númp ni. wheel

nûnêsh ni. wall of a cliff

nûnmos v-5. roll, lap (as a wave)

nur na. clearing (in forest)

nùs, nùse na. tornado

nusul v-7. be even, balanced

nwàfa v-7. contain, consist of, be full of, made of, characterized by

nwàl nm. grass

nwár ni. tunnel

nyfùr ni. mess

nŷraw v-5. 1. declare; 2. promise

nys v-3. stroll, take a walk

o

ôfak ni. tidal wave

ohlu na. king

ôgar na-i. ear

ógel ni. knuckle

ôgsy v-5. eat

ogùm ni. vine

óhmos v-5. search, seek, look for

ómn na-i. butt, buttocks, arse

òmnam v-10. be stupid, foolish

òmnams n-a. idiot, fool, moron [òmnam ‘be stupid’]

òmp v-1. howl, roar

òmsh v-1. cough

onàp v-8. extinguish

onsh v-1. quack

onùk na-i. (pl. onéks) 1. tooth; 2. bit (of something) (pl. form is not used with this meaning)

ônuk na. slave

ôry v-irr. wake up, be awake

osdîm ni. other (in addition, separate from) (referring only to inanimate nouns)

oslo ni. dungeon

osnà na-i. mind, brain

ôtal v-8. 1. water; 2. cool off

oti conj. for, in order to, so that

ôtil ni. water; ~ slâ drown

owush ni. block

p

páh-wy adj. 1. during, throughout, when (time); 2. through, throughout (object)

pal, pale ni. 1. gem, jewel; 2. delicacy

pâlent v-7. want, desire, wish, intend

pám ni. curve

pàm na-i. 1. foot; 2. beginning, start; 3. entry, entryway, front room

pâmbe na. rhetorical skill

pamì na-i. heart

pàmmos v-5. kick

pámnuh (S.) v-5. dance

pàmsi (N.) v-5. wake up, get up

pan ni. reward, award, prize

pannuh v-5. reward, award

pârom v-7. describe

pàs1 ni. (state of) death

pàs2 v-2. stop up

pàsluh v-5. 1. die, kill; 2. succumb

pàsmos v-5. murder, slaughter

pash ni. mangosteen

pásh ni. what?

pâtal v-7. run

pâtalpâtal adv. fast, running

pegas v-7. be the same, identical

peh ni. place

pelo ni. morning

pér nm. meeting, encounter

pérsy v-5. meet, encounter

pêshal v-7. wonder

pewûl na-i. lip

piris v-9. blossom, bloom, hatch

plós ni. shiny finish, coating

plumro n. grove [K. plumormo]

plur v-6. be fast, go fast, quickly

plùr v-6. 1. let go of; 2. put down

po na. navel

pom na-i. heel (of foot)

pòr v-3. destroy, demolish, ruin

póms na. cannibal

pos ni. imprint, impression

pôsâm v-8. walk uphill, ascend

poshgom ni. palace

prŷh nv. such, something similar, like, sort

prŷhmos v-5. 1. know, be acquainted with; 2. be like, similar to; 3. be used to, accustomed to (something else; not to doing something oneself); 4. borrow, lend

pseha ni. gap

psî ni. fire; v-irr. burn

psol ni. echo, distant sound

psuli ni. 1. elegance, refinement; 2. finery, any fine or elegant object

pshérà na. foreigner

pshóms na. 1. old person; 2. beggar

púks ni. remedy

pum ni. answer, response, reaction

pùm ni. initiative

pumraw v-5. answer, respond, react

pûnh na. (pl. kêpra) god

pur ni. range, territory (of animals, tribes)

púraw v-5. sneeze

r

radar ni. pebble

râgòm v-7. wail, weep, bawl

râheh nm. whirlwind

râhèh v-7. be wise, thoughtful

rahmos v-5. banish

ramba ni. spice

rànmos v-5. tear apart, rip up

ráp ni. past

ràp v-irr. 1. go, travel, journey, traverse, call, summon, send for; 2. continue, proceed, follow, succeed

rawa ni. grief

rawas1 v-7. wither, wilt, wear out, crumble

rawas2 ni. boat

râwás v-7. rot

rêhem v-7. slither

rel na. this, these (only referring to animate nouns)

remel ni. 1. brush, plants; 2. foliage

remél nm. joy, happiness, exuberance, excitement

rêmêl v-7. speak, talk, say, tell

reras v-7. 1. guard, defend; 2. attack (object of attack in All. case)

ri na. bird (large)

ni. staff, stick

rihir ni. scar

rihmos v-5. torture

nm. sinew

robe ni. edible fruit skin

ròga ni. net

rògsy v-5. cast a net [ròga ‘net’]

róhap v-8. 1. hurt; 2. exhaust

róhnam v-10. be rough, abrasive

ròm na-i. dear, love, beloved

romas v-8. throw, cast, pitch

romp ni. foam, froth

rompmos v-5. throb, ache [romp]

romsy v-5. foam, froth [romp]

ros na. bird sp.

rosh v-3. 1. weave; 2. joing together; 3. fix

rudhama ni. tangerine [K. ruzama]

runh na. master

rus na-i. forehead

ryrámèl ni. (human) tree dwelling

s

sáb ni. crease, indentation; v-3. meander

sábluh v-5. crease, indent

sábmos v-5. topple, knock over

sábsy v-5. 1. bow; 2. crouch

sabûra ni. ghost town, abandoned city, ruins of a city

sadhy adv. more, again

saf v-3. flatter, pander

sàg na. 1. fin, 2. petal; ni. handle

sâgel v-7. be aware of, conscious of, sense, know, realize

sahmos v-5. raze

sak ni. tool

sam-gim adj. among

sany ni. system

sâp-am adj. flat, smooth, dull

sâpnam v-10. be soft

sar v-3. 1. lift, pick up; 2. uplift; 3. improve

sàr v-2. melt

sawra ni. plum [K. sarva]

sbàl v-2. 1. rule, control; 2. extend over, last, endure

sbe-so adj. from

sdàp ni. liquid

sdim, sdima ni. road

sefó ni. hat

sehwym v-7. whistle

sel na. lizard, reptile

sémfym na-i. option, choice

sigis v-9. sort

sgá1 nm. jolt, burst

sgá2 nm. 1. step, footstep, pace; 2. rhythm

sgà v-irr. 1. feel; 2. find, discover, come upon; 3. try out a sample of something, taste; 4. experience, undergo, suffer

sgáfany ni. 1. path, walkway; 2. melody

sgà-sek adj. upon, immediately following [F.D.NPst + F.D.Pst form of sgà]

sgawdis v-irr. trap

sgolup na. owl

sîkraw v-5. annoy, bother

sintêr ni. 1. shape; 2. outline, perimeter, line; v-10. walk around the perimeter of

slâ ni. roof, ceiling, top; v-irr. 1. cover, top; 2. finish, complete

slak v-3. report, relate, bring word of, inform of

slâluh v-5. crush, flatten [slâ]

snès nm. health, condition

snèssy v-5. be healthy, feel good/well, fine, okay, heal

snigi na. deer

snihok na. winter, rainy season

snihup nm. tear, rain, drop

snôlur ni. entrance

sôdhar nm. cold; v-8. be cold

sodhor ni. flat bread

sodhu ni. blade

sôhag v-8. be long (time)

sol v-3. be angry, mad, anger

solsy v-5. frown, look angry

som ni. 1. nest; 2. collection, gathering

sómsh-kemp adj. far, far beyond, far away, distant

sop nv. remainder, remnant

sòr na. hip

sòram v-8. stay, stand

sos na. petal (culinary)

srà ni. daytime

srùm v-6. walk

srùmsrùm adv. steadily, slowly but surely, determinedly

srùmsrùmal nm. determination

sùk na-i. boy, son

sul nv. less, fewer

sumbu ni. bonfire

sùnwál na-i. female cousin

suplik v-10. not prefer, pass over

sus ni. stone, rock

swêw-mar adj. white

syhfyl v-10. be weak, delicate, unsteady, fragile

syhlu na. 1. royalty, king and queen; 2. ruler, leader [syshbe ohlu]

symp ni. sand

syshbe na. queen

sh

shâ ni. mountain (used when speaking of indistinct, undifferentiated, nameless ones, esp. in plural)

shabe na. throne

shah na-i. facial hair

shàh v-2. be lost, get lost, lose, abandon

shâl, shâle ni. coral

shâla ni. brick [K. shanlo]

shânép v-7. be embarassed, embarass

shap int. well

sharàs ni. onion

shbù na-i. belly, tummy, stomach

shduh v-6. 1. wander; 2. forgo

shduhshduh adv. 1. aimlessly; 2. for a long time

shduhshduhal nm. aimlessness

shêbas v-7. not matter, be insignificant, inconsequential

shèk adv. never; int. 1. no (response to proposition); 2. never

sheklam v-10. be bad

shekmos nm. badness, evil

shèks ni. never, no time

shel ni. glass

shelgim v-10. be ugly

shlôgim nm. ugliness

shelmos v-5. mutilate [shelgim]

shêshmos v-5. pillage, loot, raid

shgems na. very ugly person [shelgim ‘be ugly]’

shgup v-6. blink

shgymèl ni-i. horn, antler

shìm na. seed

shimèk na. table

shîmêk nm. sacrifice

shirnas v-10. be regular, ordinary

shîwŷr na-i. male cousin

shlyr na-i. tone of voice

shlŷr ni. color

shlýr na-i. attitude

shmup v-6. sneak up, creep up (on)

shobà nm. ritual, practice

shof v-3. struggle

shogor na. root

shom ni. 1. side, edge; 2. arm (of a chair), wing (of a building)

shòm na-i. 1. head; 2. dome

shôra ni. lime

shós v-3. be crazy

shuk v-3. need

shûmh na. bird (small)

shusha ni. saffron [K. jushha]

shwèl ni. town, village

shwùs nm. warmth; v-6. be warm, hot

shwùsok na. summer, dry season

shy na-i. (pl. shé) hand

shynuh v-5. 1. make a fist; 2. grasp a handful

t

tâbesh ni. valley

tagor ni. blood

tagraw v-5. bleed [tagor]

tàl1 v-2. happen

tàl2 v-3. confuse, perplex

tam v-3. remember

tàm adv. there

tàms ni. there

tanraw v-5. fight, attack, contend, clash

tar v-2. empty

taras v-7. think, ponder

tas v-3. happen accidentally, be an accident

tás v-3. imagine, pretend

táshbur v-6. choke, strangle

tashòd v-7. prepare (food), cook

te na. animal

nm. voice

tedar v-7. break

tek v-3. fall out, wear out, thin, waste away, disintegrate

tekeh v-7. steal, rob

tésinsh ni. ladder

teshbènsh ni. box [teshèp ‘enclose’]

teshèp v-7. 1. avoid, ignore; 2. dismiss; 3. forbid, lock up; 4. enclose, cover, conceal, hide

tígà ni. ground, dirt, earth

tik ni. peel, skin (culinary)

tiksy v-5. peel, skin (culinary)

tinwê ni. dough

tishik v-9. compare

tobêdo na-i. leg, foot, leg and foot

todap v-8. stumble, falter, trip

tofal ni. pearl

tohnam v-10. 1. be hard, tough; 2. clot, coagulate; 3. curdle

tòksy v-5. 1. send, free; 2. hit; 3. play (instrument played with hands)

top ni. forest

tôpash v-8. bite

tos v-3. groan

tôtar v-8. shake, tremble

tugîr ni. letter (of alphabet)

tûlnes v-10. be pleasant

túm ni. storm

tùmp ni. filth, grime

tùmnuh v-5. be filthy, grimy, disgusting

tùms na. filthy person [tùmp ‘filth’]

tus ni. ash

tusgum ni. that, those (distant, not visible; only referring to inanimate nouns)

tyr adv. earlier, before

u

ube na-i. name

ùbraw v-5. whine

udash na-i. mother

udugu na. bay

udhe na-i. 1. wing; 2. river bank

úgo ni. way, method, fashion

uhìnt-èp adj. 1. small, little (for physical objects), young; only, mere

uhìnt-ut adj. 1. tired, sleepy; 2. on the way to becoming

uku ni. bed

ul ni. skirt

umi ni. dialect

umlúf ni. writing, text

ûmnor v-10. be blind

umpuk ni. berry

umri ni. subject, topic, issue, matter

úms v-1. pluck, pull, steal, snatch, grab, whisk away

ùms v-1. 1. obtain, get, take (with some effort); 2. earn, cost; 3. deserve

undúr v-6. 1. divide (esp. into more than two pieces); 2. spread, scatter, disperse

ûnmùr ni. wood

ûnmúr ni. 1. beam, plank, post; 2. pillar, column

unt v-1. sell

ùnt v-1. suck

ûpel na. white part of eye

ûpîs ni. bread

usbe na-i. scale (on animal)

ûsgar ni. yolk

ûsgar-ok adj. yellow

usgîsh na. tail

ushash ni. rectangle; kohlom ~ square

ushgà-wàh adj. 1. safe; 2. unharmed, intact

uty v-irr. 1. sleep; 2. give up on, stop, cease, abandon; 3. demolish, wreck, destroy

w

wabés v-7. 1. summon; 2. pray, hope

wafa na-i. sore

wàh v-2. give, transfer

wàhraw v-5. show, present, display

wam v-3. 1. gaze, stare; 2. study

wàm ni. bump

wamlar v-10. be sappy, lovey-dovey, mushy

war ni. pot, jar, container; v-2. scoop up, gather

wàr v-2. 1. pop; 2. bubble, boil; 3. hop

wár-ysh adj. above, over

wásek v-7. tell (to do something), order, demand, request

waser v-7. deceive

wasluh v-5. 1. blow (object, as opposed to wind); 2. alight, land, perch; 3. grace, honor, visit; 4. adorn, enhance; 5. impress

wasmos v-5. flip

wasnam nm. wind

wêkêp v-7. build

wêraw v-5. 1. rub; 2. scrub, wipe, polish

wer-shom adj. guilty

wesa ni. branch

wèsh-lu adj. lonely, alone, only

wè-wy adj. not

wgawyms na. witch, sorcerer

wgesa ni. cradle

widis v-9. love, admire, respect

wîn ni. cloud

wláw ni. that, those (not visible; only referring to inanimate nouns)

wod nm. awe, amazement, wonder

wodraw v-5. be in awe, amazed, wonder

wôdhep ni. hide, animal skin

wògak v-8. 1. grunt; 2. tear, rip, gash; 3. be sharp, pointed, broken, jagged

worosh nm. doll [K. vorosho]

wrâbla na. life, lifetime, lifespan [fàr âbla]

nv. group, collection

wummos v-5. dig

wûmh ni. tree

wup, wupu ni. footprint

wýblû ni. 1. platform, shelf, terrace; 2. palm (of hand)

wydho ni. (pl. wedhym) stick

wýhbi ni. sugar

wyr v-irr. 1. create, make, form; 2. think of

y

ybàh ni. forever, always

ŷbog ni. oval, ellipse, circle; kohlom ~ circle

ŷduk int. wonderful, satisfying, pleasurable, nice

ykluh v-5. like, admire

yks ni. powder

ykymuk ni. root vegetable, tuber

ymel nm. food

ỳmh v-1. 1. hold, take, grasp; 2. stay, remain, keep, hold on to; 3. understand

ymîs ni. island

ynda na. liver

yndos ni. ember

ynmùm v-6. sail

ynt ni. this, these (only referring to inanimate nouns)

ýnt nm., v-1. smile

ypos na. turtle, tortoise, terrapin

ýs na-i. back (of person)

ysy ni. wave coming ashore, lap

ŷsh nm. feather, arrow

yshmos v-5. crouch, bend down

ŷw nm. disease, sickness, illness

ŷwmos v-irr. be sick, ill